Vector tense #15
|From:||Gerald Koenig <jlk@...>|
|Date:||Friday, January 29, 1999, 1:46|
Stephen has noted that the modals as defined are somewhat inaccessible.
Here I will try to show how to use them in an easy way. The first step
to using the nilenga modals is to identify the underlying statement or
proposition that is to be modalized. That statement is often just
hinted at or partially expressed, and it has to be inferred.
1. Starr wants Clinton to go to jail.
The inferred proposition is something like "Clinton will go to jail".
The modal is then applied to the proposition:
Star di Clinton fu in`suaz nir jeit.
Star wants that Clinton will be put inside jail.
There is an implied "that" after the modals:
bi::-believes x believes that "p" is true.
The "that" is like a bracket that nests the claims.
2.I believe Star wants Clinton to go to jail.
The proposition to be modalized is itself a modal. It is
"Star di Clinton tibefu nir jeit".
mi bi Star di Clinton fu in`suaz nir jeit.
I believe that Star wants that "Clinton will be put into jail" is a true
3. I believe that probably Star wants clinton to go to jail.
mi bi rop Star di Clinton in`suaz nir jeit.
I believe that with 99% probability that Star wants Clinton to go to jail.
mi bi rop99 Star di Clinton in`suaz nir jeit.
I believed that Star would want Clinton to go to jail if he had commited a
mi pa bi Star fu di Clinton fu in`suaz nir jeit, ros ha ju fe feinu.
mip bi Star fud Clinton in`suazfu nir jeit, ros haj fe feinu.
I believed that "Star will want Clinton to be put in jail" will be true
if "Clinton has commited a crime." is true.
This shows how the modals can be tensed independently of the main
proposition. The use of "ros" infers that the supposition, "he had
commited a crime" is still not proven, but it may be true. "Ros" means
imagined and also possibly factual.