Ulutsuan (Taxa family)
|From:||Aidan Grey <grey@...>|
|Date:||Thursday, November 28, 2002, 3:01|
This is a cross post from the Arda-lang project. I hereby present
Ulutsuan, the language of the Ulutsu in southern Arda. This is mostly
a simple sketch, but since the lang is fairly simple, it should do.
Cons: p, t, k, r, l, n, m, tl, ', s, sh, h, w, y, ps, ts, ks, ch
Vowels: a, o, u, e, i (only short)
no final consonants, all syllables (C)V
2s rou (polite)
1pe una (polite)
1pi nae (polite)
Used in relative clauses, 'tlo' is always absolutive, and always
required. Other roles indicated by other particles with the inverse.
For example: The tree whose branch I hold =
rotlo kai a neye kai tlo milama
lit. tree REL I branch of it hold
the particle 'e' is not required after tlo.
irrealis (non-past): ma
neg int: -hai
inverse particle: u
order: tense - inv - arguments(SOV) - stem - int/neg - mood
agent (ergative): -
patient/subject (absolutive): e
ablative (from): lo
allative (to, towards): i
perlative (through, along): pu
modifiers after head, after particle
The inverse particle is used to indicate an abnormal order. All nouns
belong to a hierarchy of activity, and nouns with higher activity
always act on nouns of lower activity. For pronouns, the obvious
hierarchy is 1 > 2 > 3. The inverse particle allows 3 > 2 > 1.
Check my examples below with the horse, to make sure it makes sense to
you. I think I may have the meanings backwards.
I see you. A ka e che.
I used to see you. Wa a ka e che.
Did I see you? Ho a ka e cheha?
if I don't see you... Shu ma a ka e cheya...
Whoa! I can see you! A'a ksu a ka e che!
I glanced at you. Ho a ka e che'a.
I am staring at you. A ka e che'e.
You see me. A u ka e che
You see him. Ka ti e che.
He doesn't see you. Ka u ti e cheya.
The man I saw is tall. Osa e kai ho a tlo che so yu'a.
She is sitting in a tree. Ti e pe'e rotlo o.
I used to eat my food up. Wa a uno (kai a) e noro'a.
The horse killed him. Ho ti u aile e kutsu.
He let the horse kill him. Aile ti e kutsu.
I will chop down the tall tree tomorrow.
Shike'e a rotlo e yu'a kono'a.