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Re: USAGE: ? ? ? USAGE: Circumfixes

From:Roger Mills <rfmilly@...>
Date:Tuesday, May 11, 2004, 19:04
Barry Garcia wrote:

> Hiligaynon (Philipines, island of Panay) has a few:
These are very interesting in comparison with Malay/Indonesian.
> > Ka- -an - collective noun: > > Kabataan - youth, children stem: bata - child > kasagingan - banana plantation stem: saging - banana > kamaisan - cornfield stem: mais - corn > > it also seems to have a similar function like -ness: > > kabudlayan - difficulty, harship stem: budlay - hard, difficult > kamaayohan - goodness stem: maayo - good, well
Except for the "banana"and "corn" derivs., "-ness" is the usual analogue in Indonesian; "state of being...". (The location nouns would be per--an forms, corresponding to *pag--an in PI languages, but I believe pag--an forms are generally verbs. But one sometimes has the impression that the various Austronesian langs. picked-and-chose from the set of affixes, such that *paR--an is verbal in one subgroup, nominal in another, lacking in a third, etc. *ka--an seems to be the only consistently nominal one, but even in Javanese (and in a few borrowings in Indo.) it forms the "accidental passive"-- as seen in Indo. kehujanan 'get caught in the rain (hujan), get rained on', kejatuhan (lit. get fallen-on < jatuh 'fall') e.g. ia kejatuhan kelapa 'he got-fallen-on (by-a-)coconut'.
> > ka- -on: forms nouns. Seems to have a sense of time, or state:
Historically, these would be < *ka -- @n, a different and usually verbal suffix. So it's possible that instead of a circumfix [ka-@n]+ BASE we have prefix + derived base [ka]+[BASE+@n]. But *-@n would > /-an/ in Indo., so it's hard to be sure of the origin of the Indo. correspondents (and in two of the three, the semantics don't quite match up)--
> > kaagahon - early morning. stem: aga - morning
keesokan (hari/nya) 'the following day' < esok 'tomorrow'
> kagab-ihon - deep night. stem: gabi - night
kemalaman 'overtaken by darkness' < malam 'night'(an accid.passive)
> kamatayon - death. stem: patay - to die, dead, to put out (fire), to > switch off
kematian 'death' < mati 'dead' (matikan for the transitive forms)
> kina- -an: abstract stative nouns > ma- -an: source does not tell its use.
Nothing comparable in Indo.