Applicatives (was: Re: Requesting some challenging sentences)
|Date:||Sunday, October 30, 2005, 19:30|
--- In email@example.com, caotope <johnvertical@H...> wrote:
> > > I always forget what applicatives are and what they're
> > > doing :( I only remember Henrik once explaining me it's
> > > approximately the difference between "We speak about
> > > the book" and "We 'bespeak' the book" (note that that's
> > > grammatical in German).
> > An applicative raises an oblique argument to direct object,
> > thus turning a ditransitive or intransitive clause into a
> > (mono)transitive clause.
> Aren't there also restrictions on what semantic role the oblique
> argument may have? I'd be surprized to see eg. source or path raised
> to direct object called an "applicative".
> This of course begs a question or two: what else than instruments
> can be applicativized? And what are the voices raising other sorts
> of oblique arguments called?
> John Vertical
Any voice which promotes any oblique to the "second position" is
an "applicative voice":
whether "second position" is "direct object" (as in an
accusative/nominative, indirect/direct language);
or "primary object" (as in an accusative/nominative,
or "ergative" (as in an ergative/absolutive language).
I don't think the "third position" counts as "oblique" for the
purpose of this terminology. Promoting "third position" to "second
position" in an indirect/direct language is called "Dative Movement";
promoting "third position" to "second position" in a
secundative/primative language is called "Anti-Dative Movement".
Locatives can definitely be applicativized;
http://email.eva.mpg.de/~peterson/applicatives.html has an Ainu
For a list of languages which have applicative voices,
seems to suggest that in Tagalog benefactives can be applicitavized.
seems to suggest (if I understood it correctly) that in some Bantu
languages (e.g. Chichewa, Chimwiini, Kinande, Nyamwezi, Bemba,
Cibemba, Chibemba), in addition to Instrumentals (from which it seems
to draw most of its earlier examples, having to do with Causatives
and Applicatives), and Benefactives and Recipients(dative movement?)
(from which it seems to draw most of its middle examples having to do
with Reciprocals and Applicatives), also, Locatives, Circumstances,
Goals, and Sources, can be Applicativized.
Googling on "Applicativize" will give you more articles.
Tom H.C. in MI