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Example for Language Samples

From:David Peterson <digitalscream@...>
Date:Monday, November 12, 2001, 4:51
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Gwejdr, by David Peterson  (Note: No relevant conculture information or links)

Case System:
                Singular:                           Plural:
Nominative: neg_winr= (a/the rock: sub.)    neg_winrIks (a/the rocks)
Accusative: neg_winrj (a/the rock: d.obj.)  neg_winrIgzj (a/the rocks)
Dative:     neg_winrEn (to a/the rock)      neg_winrIgzEn (to a/the rocks)
Genetive:       neg_winrej (of a/the rock)      neg_winrejks (of a/the rocks)
Topical:        neg_winrIf (about a/the rock)   neg_winrigzIf (about rocks)
Instrumental:   neg_winrET (with a/the rock)    neg_winrigzET (with a/the
Benefactive:    neg_winrIm (for a/the rock)     neg_winrIgzIm (for a/the
Causative:  neg_winr&j (because of a rock)  neg_winr&jks (because of rocks)
Authoritive:    neg_winrIpsj (by a/the rock)    neg_winrIgzIpsj (by a/the
Locative:       neg_winrEs (at/near a rock)     neg_winrIgzEs (at/near rocks)
Prepositional:neg_winrEk (prep. a/the rock) neg_winrEks (prep. a/the rocks)
Vocative:       neg_winrejS (O, rock!)          neg_winrIgzejS (O, rocks!)

Vowel Harmony:
Font Vowels: [&/I]; [e/E]; i [i/I]      Back Vowels: [A/@]; [o/V]; [u/V]

    In Gwejdr, each adjective has a front and back vowel version, depending
on what type of word it modifies–each noun and verb is composed entirely of
either front or back vowels, and are classified as front or back vowel words.
 So, taking the adjective “fierce”:

[gArVS], as in [hAgVLtS gArVS] “a fierce warrior”
[g_werIS], as in [vijS g_werIS], “a fierce fire”

    In addition to this, many consonants have different qualities depending
on whether they occur in front of front or back vowels.  Here are the
synchronic rules that apply to this:

1.) /b/, /d/ and /g/ are labialized in front of front vowels.
2.) /p/, /t/ and /k/ become [ps], [ts] and [ks] in front of front vowels.
3.) /s/, /f/, /S/, /tS/ and /T/ voice into [z], [v], [Z], [dZ] and [D] in
front of front vowels.
4.) /ks/ (the letter) voices, becoming [gz] in front of front vowels.

Other variation:
5.) /n/ becomes [N] in front of /g/, /k/ and /ks/; /m/ becomes [M]* in front
of /f/.
6.) /l/ becomes [L] syllable finally.
7.) /j/ and /w/ becoming [i] and [w] in syllabic positions.
8.) /r/ becomes [4] in (a) between two short vowels, and (b) initial
consonant clusters.
9.) /x/ becomes [ç] in front of non-low front vowels.

© 2001 David J. Peterson

*[M] is a labiodental nasal

    So here I have (1) the name of the language, (2) the creator's name, (3)
related links (none in this case), (4) Conculture information (none again),
(5) interesting features (12 case system, unusual vowel harmony [are there
any natural languages that do this kind of thing?], and unpredictable
phonetic variation, as well as some predictable [I had some space to kill at
the end]), (6) The copyright symbol and my name and the year (here the month
isn't so much important).  Also, since I know that [M] isn't the symbol for a
labiodental nasal (I don't know what it is), I listed what it was, so that if
I were to receive it, I'd know what IPA symbol belonged ot it.  This is what
I'm looking for.  Thanks again!


"Zi hiwejnat zodZaraDatsi pat Zi mirejsat dZaCajani sUlo."
"The future's uncertain and the end is always near."
                --Jim Morrison


Tristan Alexander McLeay <anstouh@...>