Lïzxvööse Verbs II: Active Di- and 4-Consonantals
|From:||Dan Seriff <microtonal@...>|
|Date:||Sunday, August 12, 2001, 18:21|
The 2d and 3d person singular of a diconsonantal verb does not show the
same masculine/feminine alteration as a triconsonantal does, and also
does not change the root arrangement in the plural.
Present active, example root b-z - "ability" (i.e., inf. "to be able
to", takes a complementary infinitive). This root has no passive form.
Even though it is stative in English, in Lïzxvööse it is considered active.
abaazu [AbA:zu] I am able (to)
abaaze [AbA:zE] you (sg.) are able (to)
abaazeq [AbA:zEq] he/she/it is able (to)
abaazes [AbA:zEs] we are able (to)
abaazexet [AbA:zESEt] you (pl.) are able (to)
abaazëkkat [AbA:zeXAt] they are able (to)
Other present active forms:
participle: baazo [bA:zO] enabling, maybe?
adverb: abëzï [Abezi] ably
infinitive: abaaz [AbA:z] to be able (to)
Present passive, example root r-nq [4-n"] - "thinking":
'engaraanqu [?ENA4A:n"u] I am being thought about
'engaraanqe y'all can figure out the rest of this part
Di-consonantals do not have a passive participle.
Future active, example root s-j - "calling, naming":
sej 'enee [sE: ?EnE:] I will call/name
' 'en etc.
This sound change is similar to /w/ (see below):
/Vj/ -> [V:] / _#
/j/ -> [i] / V[front]_C
'engsej 'enee [?ENsE: ?EnE:] I will be called/named
Imperative, example root j-b - "fucking" (very rude and/or highly sexual
(although not even slightly romantic...one wouldn't use it with one's
lover, unless one was into that sort of thing), stolen from Slavic
languages and PIE):
Usage of this word is frowned upon in polite society (and even in some
impolite societies), even to the point, in some places, of those who
utter it being fined or given a light public beating (administered by
professionals, of course, not the general public).
Some forms of 4-consonant verbs experience root-truncation. The last
consonant is dropped, but since it is always part of the base root which
can be deduced from the remaining consonants, no meaning is lost. The
only 4-consonant root that I've got right now is k-m-n-w -
"understanding", so all examples will use it. 4-consonantals use exactly
the same personal endings in the present as do 3-consonantals.
kïïmnuwee [ki:mnuwE:] I understand
kïïmnuwaj / -ajö you (sg.) understand
kïïmnuwaa / -awö he/she/it understands
kïmnöwse [kimnousE] we understand
kïmnöwzxa you (pl.) understand
kïmnöwgganö they understand
Other present active forms:
participle: kamaanöw [kAmA:nO:] understanding
adverb: kamënïw [kAmeni:] knowingly, with understanding
infinitive: kïman (truncated) to understand
Another /w/ rule:
/Vw/ -> [V:] / _#
'engkïïmnuwee I am understood
komnatï (truncated) being understood
kemnêw 'enee [kEmn@: ?EnE:] I will understand
'engkemnêw 'enee I will be understood
I read in Ladefoged & Maddieson that there are languages which have
multi-articulated nasals (i.e., [m] and [n] or others being articulated
simultaneously). I find I can do them quite easily at any two points of
articulation with a little practice.
New pronunciation rule! Post-consonantal nasal crasis!
Honesty means never having to say "Please don't flush me down the toilet!"
- Bob the Dinosaur
Half of America believes homosexuality is wrong...the same percentage
believes that Socrates was a great Indian chief.