|From:||Danny Wier <dawier@...>|
|Date:||Wednesday, February 5, 2003, 12:22|
Kabyle is one of the Northern Berber languages (Afro-Asiatic); it is spoken by
2.5 million or more in Algeria.
Labials: b B bw f m w
Dentals: d D d. t T t. n l
Alveolars: s s. ts z z. dz r r.
Palatals: S tS Z dZ j
Velars: g G gw Gw k x kw xw
Uvulars: R Rw q qw X Xw
Pharyngeals: H 3
Glottals: ? h
Vowels: a @ i u
1) /d./, /t./, /s./, /z./ and /r./ are "emphatics", a set of
velarized/pharyngealized consonants also found in Arabic.
2) There is a fortis/lenis distinction: b > B, d > D, t > T, k > x, g > G.
Lenition occurs with non-initial, non-geminated, non-emphatic stops, as in
3) Common Berber tt > ts, dd > dz.
4) Labiovelarized variants of velars, uvulars and the one labial /b/ have
5) Like Arabic, there is no /p/; Proto-Afro-Asiatic /p/ became Berber /f/, just
like it did in Arabic and South Semitic.
6) There is no length distinction of vowels, and /@/ is a result of insertion.
I'm posting this phonology because it gave me plenty of ideas for Tech: its
consonant clusters, labiovelarization and spirantization (lenition). Lenition
originally came from Gaelic and Hebrew however.