Many & varied case systems
|From:||Garth Wallace <gwalla@...>|
|Date:||Wednesday, December 17, 2003, 0:19|
Let me see if I've got this straight...
S = subject of intransitive verb
A = agent of transitive verb
O = object of monotransitive verb
P = patient of ditransitive verb
R = recipient of ditransitive verb
S=A,O=P,R nominative/accusative, direct/indirect object
S=A,O=R,P nominative/accusative, primary/secondary object
S=A,O,R,P nominative/accusative, tripartite object
S=A,O,R=P nominative/accusative, massive raving loony object?
S=A,O=R|P nominative/accusative, active object?
S=O=P,A,R absolutive/ergative, direct/indirect object
S=O=R,A,P absolutive/ergative, primary/secondary object
S=O=A,R,P absolutive/ergative, kinda raving loony?
S=O,A,R,P absolutive/ergative, tripartite object?
S=O,A=R,P absolutive/ergative?, ?
S=O,A=P,R absolutive/ergative?, ??
S=O,A,P,R absolutive/ergative?, independent ditransitive?
S=O,A=P|R absolutive/ergative?, active object?
S,A=O=R,P massive raving loony, direct/indirect object
S,A=O=P,R massive raving loony, primary/secondary object
S,A=O,R,P massive raving loony, tripartite object
S,A=O,R=P massive raving loony, ???
S,A=O=R=P absurdly massive raving loony?
S,A,O=P,R tripartite, direct/indirect object
S,A,O=R,P tripartite, primary/secondary object
S,A,O=P|R tripartite, active object?
S=A|O,O=P,R active, direct/indirect object
S=A|O,O=R,R active, primary/secondary object
S=A|O,P,R active, tripartite object
S=A|O,P=R active, MRL object
S=A|P|R,O=P overactive?, direct/indirect object
S=A|P|R,O=R overactive?, primary/secondary object
S=A|P|R,O=P|R overactive?, active object?
S,A,O,R,P case overload!
I'm not counting split (as in split-ergative or split-evil) systems,
since you could conceivably have a split between any two systems (or
more if you're really sadistic). I'm also not differentiating between
split-S and fluid-S active systems--assume either is possible whenever
there's a "|".
Am I missing any (sensible) permutations? How many of these are found in
natlangs (I hope the last five at least don't, for the sake of the
hypothetical speakers)? Is there a more sensible way of categorizing them?