Reflexive (was Re: Help on Verbs...)
|From:||Theodore Kloba <ted.kloba@...>|
|Date:||Wednesday, October 27, 1999, 12:03|
Nik Taylor wrote:
> Reflexive and reciprocative are two others.
> Reflexive means that the subject acts on him/herself, like "He killed
> himself", it's similar to middle, and I'm not clear exactly what the
> difference is.
It does seem that reflexive and middle voice are very similar. I think it
depends on the way it's constructed ina particular language.
Reflexive also occurs in some natural languages in constructions that would
be active voice in English. Some IE Examples:
"He is bored."
French "Il s'ennui" - He bores himself.
"I'm afraid of you."
Russian "Ya vas boyus'" - I fear myself of you.
Lithuanian "As~ mokausi" - I study myself (?!?)
Note that all three of these languages have a reflexive pronoun:
se/sebya/save (They don't have a nominative case-- accusative is given).
The Fr. example uses that pronoun (reduced to s' here), but the Ru. & Lt.
verbs add a verbal suffix after the conjugated verb, s' in Russian, si in
> Reciprocative is like reflexive, except it can only be used with plural
> subjects and means that the subjects are acting *on each other*, like
> "They killed each other" (compare "they killed themselves)
In the above three languages, I think reflexive would still be used.
Theodore M. Kloba