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Semitic&Akadian (was: New Conlang: Emegali Phonology)

From:Vasiliy Chernov <bc_@...>
Date:Friday, February 1, 2002, 17:29
On Wed, 30 Jan 2002 10:56:28 -0500, I wrote:

>Sorry, it seems I won't be able to post my promised translation today (the
>office where I am now will be disconnected in about half an hour because >of some electric works). > >Anyway, my source is: > >I. M. Dyakonov, Akkadskij jazyk, - in: Jazyki Azii i Afriki/Semitskie >jazyki. No. IV/1 in the series: Jazyki Azii i Afriki, Moskva, Glavnaja >redakcija vostochnoj literatury, 1991; idem, Vvedenije. Afrazijskie jazyki >- ibid.
p. 75 ff.: <quote> [The method] can be illustrated by the sibilants. It should be taken into account that Old Akkadian had only four series of syllabograms rendering all Proto-Afro-Asiatic and Proto-Semitic sibilants and affricates. Let's denote them conventionally as ZV, S'V, S_V and S`V; the series S_V was not used consistently and was soon relaced completely by the series S'V: P.-Afro-Asiatic Their graphical reflexes sibilants & affricates in Old Akkadian s c c. 3 S'V ZV ZV ZV s` c` c.` 3` S_/S'V S`V ZV ZV s^ c^ c.^ (-) S'V S'V* ZV - ---------------- * The P.-Afro-Asiatic phoneme c^ merged with s^ already in Old Akkadian, like in a number of other Afro-Asiatic languages. Therefore, the Old Akkadian syllabogram series ZV renders all P.-Afro-Asiatic affricates except c`, while the series S'V renders all [other] P.-Afro-Asiatic sibilants (originally, except s`). However, it would be a premature assumption to think that in Old Akkadian all sibilants merged in s, while all affricates except c` merged in z. We know that Old Akkadian graphic system rendered the language's phonology very roughly, e. g. failed to distinguish p from b, k from q and g, t from t. and d; nevertheless, on a later stage these phonemes were differentiated, although not quite consequentially [...]. Let us consider, therefore, the way the same P.-Afro-Asiatic sibilants and affricates were denoted in later writing systems, starting from Old Babylonian: P.-Afro-Asiatic Their graphical reflexes sibilants & affricates in Old Babylonian s c c. 3 S`V SV S.V ZV s` c` c.` 3` S`V S`V S.V ZV s^ c^ c.^ (-) S`V S`V S.V - Here we see not three but four series of syllabograms [...] In the new system (1) P.-Afro-Asiatic emphatic affricates denoted by the S.V-series were differentiated from P.-Afro-Asiatic voiced affricates rendered by the ZV-series; (2) all P.-Afro-Asiatic sibilants were denoted using the S`V-series; (3) the same series rendered, as earlier, the reflex of P.-Afro-Asiatic c`, which seems to indicate that it had lost its affricate quality already on the Old Akkadian stage or even earlier and now has to be classified as a sibilant; (4) P.-Afro-Asiatic non-emphatic affricate c has its own separate graphic series, conventionally SV. The conventional notation is adapted to the Hebrew phonological system, with Hebrew s. [c.] considered [s.]. This picture leaves no grounds for the inference that Akkadian, even on the Old Babylonian stage, had lost the P.-Afro-Asiatic affricates [...]. The Akkadian phonology can be uncontroversially reconstructed e. g. as follows: P.-Afro-Asiatic Their graphical reflexes A possible Akkadian sibilants & affricates in Old Babylonian phonemic reconstruction s c c. 3 S`V SV S.V ZV s' c c. s` c` c.` 3` S`V S`V S.V ZV s' s` c.^ s^ c^ c.^ (-) S`V S`V S.V - s^ s^ c. One can also suppose that all P.-Afro-Asiatic emphatic affricates merged in c., but this [...] cannot be proven [then the author argues against reconstructing c`, c.`, 3` as interdentals] Above we assumed conventionally that in Old Babylonian the entire S`V-series denotes s . But this is probable only for the New Assyrian dialect where the graphophoneme combination -S` + T- yields (S)S, i. e. [cc] (due to a metathesis -st- > ts?); but such a supposition is hardly plausible for the Babylonian dialects where the combinaton -S` + T-, irrespective of the origin of the graphic S` (from s, s`, s^ or c`), yields -L + T-. This suggests that the graphic series S`V in Babylonian can stand for only one phoneme, namely, the lateral s^ . Accordingly, the emphatics should have yielded in Assyrian c, c. : c` > c.' > c. ; c.^ > c.' > c., and in Babylonian, c^ : c. > c.^ ; c.` > c.' > c.^ ; c.^ > c.' . Let us note also that the phonotactic combination of graphophonemes -T + S`- yields Akkadian graphic -S + S-, i. e. cc , which, again, points to pronounciation of the graphic series SV as c . The same combination, theoreticall, should have yielded -T + S^- > c^c^ in Babylonian. However, this has no graphical expression, since Akkadian had no non-emphatic phoneme c^ ; it is probable that here Babylonian also used cc in pronounciation. Finally, the phonotactic combination "historical c` + historical s` is writen using a doubled sign of the S`-series; since c` had lost its occlusive component, no africate emerged here, but it was pronounced in Assyrian as s's > ss, in Babylonian as s's^ > s's [a typo?] . [...] [Evidence based on graphemes and words borrowed from Akkadian:] Use of graphic series of Akadian Cuneiform syllabograms Akkadian Used to denote local phonemes in other languages Cuneiform syllabogram Hittite* Hurrian Elamite** Urartian*** ZV ts an affricate an africate 3, 3` (exact quality unknown S.V - an affricate - c., c.` (rarely) SV - an africate an affricate (c` ?) c, c` S`V s s, s` s s, s` (or at least used for historical s, s`) * Based on general relations in Indo-European. ** Based on Elamite transcriptions of Old Persian words and proper names, as well as on Elamite-Dravidian correspondences. *** Based on Armenian, Georgian and Greek transcriptions of Urartian toponyms, as well as on Hurrian-Urartian-Northeast Caucasian correspondences. [sound correspondences in borrowed words] Akkadian Cuneiform in Egyptian in Hebrew in Old Persian syllabogram series ZV 3` z S.V 3`, c` s. ([c.]!) c` SV c`; s ? s S`V s s', s` t ( < Sem. t_ ?)
>I can copy D(y/j)akono(v/ff)'s reconstruction for consonants: > >Proto-S. Old Akkadian dial. Old Bbylonian dial. > >p p p >p. b b >b b b >f p p >t t t >t. t. t. >d d d >s s (?) s^ (?) >c c c >c. c. c. > c^. (?) >3 3 3 > z (?) >s` s' (?) s^ > s' (?) >c` c` > s` s^ > s' (?) >c`. c^. c^. > c. (?) >3` 3` 3 > z (?) >s^ s^ (?) s^ (?) >c^ s^ (?) s^ (?) >c^. c^. c^. (?) >k k k >k. q q >g g g >h_ (etc) h_ h_ >G ` ', 0 >h. h. ', 0 >` ` ', 0 >h ', 0 ', 0 >' ', 0 ', 0 >m m m ( > w~) >n n n >l l l >r r r >w w w ( > 0, m) >j j, 0 j, 0 > > >3 - voiced affricate; ` (as diacritic) = hacek (alveopalatal), (otherwise) >ayin; ' (as diacritic) = acute (palatal), otherwise glottal stop; ^ = > caron (lateral).
I hope I'll post a couple more paragraphs later (on Monday?). Basilius