Notes on Lepayu Grammar (was split verbs)
|From:||Gary Shannon <fiziwig@...>|
|Date:||Monday, January 12, 2004, 5:46|
Using English vocabulary for the time being. "+" is
when two English words correspond to a single Lepayu
word or when prefixes or suffixes need to be added to
the word, or when the words needs to be inflected.
Verbs can be inflected to indicate whether the action
is involuntary, voluntary or unmarked. And
intensifier prefix can modify that to be emphatically
involuntary, emphatically voluntary, or emphatically
apathetic. A negation prefix creates a verb with the
opposite meaning. (relinquish -> hold on to, accept ->
refuse, permit -> forbid, etc.)
+vol = + voluntary action inflection on a verb
+invol = involuntary action inflection on a verb
+ms = + masc + singular on an article or indicative or
+fs = + fem + singular on an article or indicative or
+ns = + neut singular on the article or indicative or
+np = + neut plural ...
+pos = turns word into possesive equivalent
not+ = negation prefix on a verb
pst = past tense marking "adverb"
verbs with no tense "adverb" are either in the
present, or in the tense implied for the whole
sentence by the first such marker. "I ran to the
store and buy some candy." "buy" is written and spoken
in the present tense form, but is understood to be in
the past since that is implied by the first past tense
There is no case marking because each noun has a verb
of its own that tells what its role is in the
sentence. Each noun, therefore, is the subject of
it's own verb. Nouns come in three genders masc, fem,
neut which end in "-u", "-i", and "-n" respectively.
Definite, indefinite, and vacuous articles, indicative
and possesive pronouns are inflected to give number
(singular or plural) and match their noun in gender.
The vacuous article is neither definite nor indefinite
but exists only to mark number. Nouns are never
inflected for any reason, but have only one form.
Non-native names normally do not have the correct
endings, but rather than append those endings to the
names, Lepayu respects the non-native name but appends
the proper vowel to the beginning of the next word in
order to make it sound right to Lepayu ears. Thus
with the native name "Uberu" the phrase "Uberu causes
..." would be "Uberu balo..." But with the alien names
"John" or "Mary" it would be "John ubalo...", or "Mary
ibalo..." with the "missing" 'U' or 'I' tacked on to
the front of the verb balo.
John gave the books to Mary.
John pst relinquish+vol the+np book Mary receive.
Robin Hood stole from the rich and gave to the poor.
Roin Hood pst cause+vol the+mp rich relinquish+invol
the+fp poor receive+vol.
When I came to this country, I hadn't a nickel in my
pocket. Now I have a nickel in my pocket. -- Groucho
Time+of me pst move+vol this+ms country receive,
me+pos+fs pocket contain a+ns nickel not+exist.
Time+of now me have a+fs pocket contain a+ns nickel