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Carthage (was: C etc.)

From:R A Brown <ray@...>
Date:Monday, August 13, 2007, 9:52
Andreas Johansson wrote:
> Quoting R A Brown <ray@...>: > > >>K virtually disappeared. It was retain as an abbreviation for the proper >>name Casca, and also, where context made clear, for Carthage, Calends, >>calumny (calumnia) and 'caput' (head). > > Reminds me: was _Carthago_ pronounced as _Cart-hago_, reflecting more closely > Phoenician/Punic _Qart-H.adasht_, or _Car-thago_ as if from Greek?
Interesting question. As you obviously know it was not from the Greek name for the city which was _Karkhe:do:n_ (or, presumably, in Doric Greek _Karkha:do:n_). The Latin form is certainly closer to the Punic name. Presumably the Romans would have picked up the name of the city from peoples of Sicily, both Greek & Carthaginian - indeed, it was the struggles between these two colonial powers (never mind the native Sicels, Sicanian & Elymians) that got the Romans first involved with the Carthaginians. While Latin Cart- would be fair Latinization of Punic _Qart_ (city), -ha:go: (genitive: -ha:ginis) is too far removed from _H.adasht_ (new) for the Latin to be directly derived from the Punic. The Latin name looks almost as tho it is a 'portmanteau formation': a Latinized blend of Doric Greek & Punic. In which case I think _Car-tha-go_ is likely to have been the normal syllabification from the start. As hostilities grew bitter between the two nations, then it is very unlikely IMO that any attempt would have been made to reflect a Punic pronunciation & by the high Classical period, Punic had probably ceased to be spoken.
> Greek loans > must have accounted for by far the most instances of |th| in Classical Latin.
Yes, indeed. -- Ray ================================== ================================== Nid rhy hen neb i ddysgu. There's none too old to learn. [WELSH PROVERB]


Eric Christopherson <rakko@...>