Re: Thoughts on Tarsyanian verbs
|Date:||Wednesday, September 28, 2005, 0:11|
--- In firstname.lastname@example.org, Carsten Becker <naranoieati@B...>
> Because I had nothing better to do, I finally sat down this
> evening and thought about fleshing out the TarÅanian verb
> morphology a bit more.
> Here's what I came up with:
> * The basic paradigm is: <stem> + (T)AM + person + S
I had to read further to figure out what the " + S" meant.
> * Due to sound changes, all stems of verbs end in _-a, -Ä_
> or _-aÅh_ -- In contrast to Ayeri, _-a*_ always belongs to
> the stem of the verb. In Ayeri, the corresponding _-ao_ is
> dropped when verbs are inflected.
> * (T)AM is ([non-]future tense) x (im-)perfective x
> indicative/conditional/consequencial/subjunctive -- that'll
> be fun to inflect ... Note that I think I'll make the
> distinction future/non-future arbitrary so that tense is by
> default expressed with temporal adverbs like in English and
> German colloquial speech.
> * Grammatical persons are 1-3sg/pl, where 3p is divided into
> * S means the case the subject of a sentence has, apart from
> the verb's valence. The theta-roles are A, P and
> E(xperiencer), where E works as a subtype of P since E
> also undergoes an action in some way.
I like the " + S" idea.
It makes Tarsyanian's voice system an "information-salience" voice
system, among the three super-types of M.H. Klaimans typology of
voice systems in his book "Grammatical Voice"; at least, if I
understand both you and him correctly, it does so.
Other languages fitting into that super-type are some Mayan languages
and some Philippine languages. The Philippine languages fit into a
type he called "focus-salience" voice systems.
> DANGER!! UTF-8 used from here on!!! (see at the bottom if
> letters appear mangled)
> CLASS 1: -a (This is not very different from French, so
> nothing exciting here)
> Imperfective Indicative Sa
> APAÅTA /a"pA~ta/, v agt: to record, to write sth down; <
> avantao, "to record"
> 1sg ayaÅ apaÅt -a
> 2sg vaÅh apaÅt -e
> 3sgm yaÅh apaÅt -aÅ
> 3sgf hareÅ apaÅt -ai
> 1pl naÅ apaÅt -as
> 2pl paÅh apaÅt -e
> 3plm yataÅ apaÅt -a
> 3plf treÅ apaÅt -eÅ
> PA /pa/, v agt: to lead; < pitao, "to lead"
> 1sg ayaÅ p -a
> 2sg vaÅh p -e
> 3sgm yaÅh p -aÅ
> 3sgf hareÅ p -ai
> 1pl naÅ p -as
> 2pl paÅh p -e
> 3plm yataÅ p -a
> 3plf treÅ p -eÅ
> Imperfective Indicative Sp
> (I pretend that _apaÅta_ is a patientive verb here --
> actually, since it's an agentive verb, its S must *always*
> be an AGT)
> 1sg ayas apaÅt -is
> 2sg vÄs apaÅt -is
> 3sgm yÄs apaÅt -ani
> 3sgf harÄ" apaÅt -asai
> 1pl nas apaÅt -asi
> 2pl pÄs apaÅt -es
> 3plm yatas apaÅt -is
> 3plf tarÄ" apaÅt -im
> Perfective Indicative Sa
> 1sg ayaÅ apaÅ -Ã /a."pA~/
> 2sg vaÅh apaÅ -e /a."pAJ.J\@/
> 3sgm yaÅh apaÅ -aÅ /a.pAJ."J\A~/
> 3sgf hareÅ apaÅ -ai ...
> 1pl naÅ apaÅ -as
> 2pl paÅh apaÅ -e
> 3plm yataÅ apaÅ -Ã
> 3plf treÅ apaÅ -eÅ
> 1sg ayaÅ paÂ· -Ã /pA?/
> 2sg vaÅh paÂ· -e /pA?@/
> 3sgm yaÅh paÂ· -aÅ /pA?A~/
> 3sgf hareÅ paÂ· -ai ...
> 1pl naÅ paÂ· -as
> 2pl paÅh paÂ· -e
> 3plm yataÅ paÂ· -Ã
> 3plf treÅ paÂ· -eÅ
> The last syllable of perfectives is dropped. If the verb is
> monosyllabic, a glottal stop is added to the stem.
> Theta-role agreement
> Sa: -Ã
> Sp: -Ã
> Se: Sp + _ja_
> Note that _-ja_ is related to _-jaÅ_ /jA~/, which is the
> dative/benefactive ending of nouns. Sa and Sp are not
> specially marked because this is already done with person
> agreement as listed in the conjugation paradigms above. I
> thought that A and P are the core roles of a verb, even more
> than E, so I thought I keep them not specially marked. Or: I
> was too lazy to make up a third series of personal endings
There are some verbs, surely, in which the Experiencer (verbs of
emotion, judgement, or mental attitudes) or Perceiver (verbs of
sensation, etc.) may be central, along with the Stimulus (as opposed
to the Patient, sense the Experiencer or Perceiver is Affected, and
the Stimulus is not); but, you may not wish to separate these out
into a different lexical class unless you want to complicate your
voice system by having both a "basic voice" system (i.e. some verbs
are Active and some are Middle) and the "information-salience voice"
system you already have. (Many languages do in fact have voice
systems of "mixed" type, if Klaiman's book is a reliable guide;
usually one of the "types" is dominant -- at least, among his
examples, that was the case.)
> I don't think that there are verbs that have a construct
> state as S ... these would be Sc = Sa + _Ä"_ I figured (_-Ä"_ <
> _-eÅh_ /E~:/, the construct case ending of nouns)
BTW I have read that in some languages which have a "construct state",
the "construct state" is the bare, unmarked stem -- no definiteness
markers, no case markers, no number markers, etc., no affixes of any
kind. In some such languages, any occurrence of a noun that
isn't "construct state" has to have some kind of marker or other on
it. I'm sorry I can't think of a reference. I have also seen, (I am
sure, but I can't think of a reference,) that there is at least one
language which does have a specific marker for "construct state".
> I'm still not sure whether to use
> <j> => /j/
> <dÅº> => /dz\)/
> <tÅ> => /ts\)/
> <y> => /j/
> <j> => /dz\)/
> <c> => /ts\)/
> and for the list
> <Å¡> => /s\/
> <Å¾> => /z\/
> <Ã¡> => /a:/
> <Ã©> => /e:/
> <Ã±> => /J/
> Hope you liked it?
Yes, indeed! I liked it a lot. I look forward to getting time to
I should have some time around Thanksgiving to do some of the things
I've been telling people all year I was going to do when I got the
Chances are, I won't ever find time to do all of them.
Thus Time doth make liars of us all (well, maybe just of me).
> Best wishes,
Best wishes to you, too, Carsten.
Tom H.C. in MI
> Å = n-acute (U+0144) Å = s-acute (U+015B)
> Åº = z-acute (U+017A) Ã± = n-tilde (U+00F1)
> Å¡ = s-caron (U+0161) Å¾ = z-caron (U+017E)
> Ä = a-macron (U+0101) Ä" = e-macron (U+0113)
> Ã¡ = a-acute (U+00E1) Ã© = e-acute (U+00E9)
> Â· = mid-dot (U+0183)