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How to say "have" in Nindic.

From:Elliott Lash <erelion12@...>
Date:Wednesday, October 6, 2004, 1:15
the word "have" is a difficult one in most Silinestic

Nindic has over the years developed a word that's
close enough to "have", in the sense of possess. But
this took a long time.

In Archaic Northern Nindic, the common ancestor for
Classical Nindic and Hinession...a word for have was
hard to come by.  Many writers use a combination of:

"ei" which meant "is" with a relative clause meaning
"that exists to X"

An example:
"I have a bird"
Would be translated from Nindic as:
 "A bird is that which exists to me"

Or, in Archaic North Nindic:
  ei  narem   hedui        uo
  is  bird  exists

  /e: narE~B hEDyj Bo/

The full forms of this were:
 hedui uo  "to me"
 hedoth uo "to thee"
 hed uo    "to him"
 heduid uo "to her"
 hedon uo  "to us"
 hedonat uo "to you"
 hedot uo   "to them"

These forms survive into Hinession, in phonologically
changed ways:
esivo, esofo, evo, esivo, esonvo, enavo, esovo

But in Northern Nindic, things went differently.
Later on, after the Archaic period, the verb 'uo' was
lost its present tense, and was sometimes replaced by
the present 'ei' "is", sometimes by 'ra' "holds".

The forms for this period were:
 edui y  (y = ei, unstressed)
 edoth y
 ed y
 eduid y
 edon y
 ednat y
 edot y

Or the same with "ra" replacing "y".

The form with "ra" quickly displaced those with "y",
and in Early Middle Nindic, the construction was
reanalysed as a transitive verb (I stole this
reanalyses from Cornish, in which things like: "a bird
was to me" became "a bird I-was-to-me", which meant "I
had a bird".)

This reanalyses as a transitive verb was accomplished
by adding personal endings to the verb in question,
namely 'ra', which became:

edd-i rei "I have"
edd-os ral "thou hast"
edd-os ra  "he has"
  (-os became the new marker for "him")
edd-is ra "she has"
edd-on ran "we have"
e-nad rath "you have"
edd-od rath "they have"

As analogy swept through Middle Nindic, towards the
end of the period, "edd" meaning "who, which", tended
to become "e" before consonants. Hence, comparing the
infixed object pronouns in other constructions,
speakers began to use the forms:

1st edd'i rai        e'n ran
2nd e'th ral         e'nad rath
3rd m.  e's  ra      e'd rath
3rd f.  edd'is ra

With the loss of the infixed pronouns at the end of
the Late Middle Nindic and the beginning of the Early
Modern Nindic period, the emphatic object pronouns
took their place in some texts. The "e" or "edd" was
gradually discarded, yielding forms like:

1st ith rai      iath ran
2nd lith ral     anad rath
3rd m. awd ra    deid rath
3r  f. id ra

(using emphatic object pronouns)

Finally, the object pronouns became redudant and they
were discarding as Nindic entered the modern period,
with a verb "to have", as follows:

1st  rhai   rhan
2nd  rhal   rhath
3rd  rhar   rhath

hope you liked,

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H. S. Teoh <hsteoh@...>