Norreyna again (long-ish)
|From:||Dan Jones <feuchard@...>|
|Date:||Wednesday, March 21, 2001, 14:44|
Due to a widespread frenzied clamour (well, Aidan asking quite politely) I'm
posting a grammar of Norreyna.
1. Orthography and Pronunciation
b /b/, aspirated, like English
c always /k/, also aspirated
c' /tS/. Should properly be written as a c with a dot on top.
d /d/ dental, aspirated
g always /g/, aspirated
g' /dZ/. Should properly be written as a c with a dot on top.
h /h/, in some dialects is silent
l /l/, always clear, never velarised
p /p/ aspirated
r /r/ a trill
s always /s/
t /t/ dental, aspirated
ae /&/ (rare)
yr /vocalic r (don't know the SAMPA)/
yl /vocalic l/
ym /vocalic m/
yn /vocalic n/
2.1 Nouns do not have gender. I was toying with the idea of collapsing ON neuter
and masculine into one and then having a dual gender system, but the
declensions for both genders turned out the same so analogy came into play and
Norreyna nouns follow natural, not grammatical gender.
2.2 Norreyna nouns distinguish two numbers and three cases- singular and plural,
nominative, genitive and oblique. There are three declensions- nouns which
change their vowel in the plural make class 1, class 3 nouns are the old
r-stems and all the rest are lumped together in class 2. Below are three
examples: lan "land", nod "poverty" and fadyr "father"
1 2 3
nom. lan nod fadyr
gen. lans nodys fadyr
obl. lane node fadyr
nom. lonyr nodyr fedyr
gen. lona noda fedra
obl. lono nodo fedro
The d in in the oblique plural is an irregularity. ON -nd- normally becomes -n-,
but not before o or u.
All those given above are "common" (threylisc) or monosyllabic nouns. Nouns which
are polysyllabic in the nominative singular are "noble" (yarlisc). Noble nouns
syncopate their final vowel before adding the plural case endings- the
nominative plural of hayden "Pagan" is haydnyr, not haydenyr.
Note that it could be said that there only two declensions, r-stems and the rest.
It just happens that some have vowel changes in the plural. The r-stems
themslves are coming more and more to be regularised into the second
declension, forms like broedyrs and breydryr are found instead of the more
correct broedyr and breydyr.
2.3 The nominative is used for the subject and object of a sentance, the oblique
is used after all prepositions and for the indirect object. The genitive in
analogous to the English posessive and the German "saxon genitive"
2.4 Adjectives and nouns are treated the same and decline the same. An
adjective is in concord with its noun, and generally comes before the noun.
Norreyna has two articles, the definite and the indefinite:
nom. en an
gen. ens ans
obl. eni ani
nom. enyr anyr
gen. ena ana
obl. eno ano
The articles always come first in a noun-phrase.
4.1 Personal Pronouns
subject dir. object ind. obj possesive
1s ec mec mey min
2s thu thec they thin
3sm say than tham thes
3sf so thay thar thara
3sn tha tha thi thes
3ref - sec sey sin
1p wey os os wayra
2p ye yo yo yara
3p tho tho tham thara
4.2 Interrogative Pronouns
subj. dir. obj ind. obj poss
animate cwer cwenyr cwam cwess
inanimate cwa cwa cwam cwess
5.1.1 Norreyna has two "classes" of verbs, strong ang weak. The person endings for
all verbs are the same, but the strong verbs change their stem vowel with tense
(no, I'm sorry Padraic, I can't cope with *seven* conjugations. Two of the
bastards is enough!)
5.1.2 Norreyna only inflects for two tenses, past and present, and only one mood,
the indicative. Other tenses and moods are expressed with auxilliaries, like in
5.1.3 The sample verbs calla "to call" and gefa "to give" are shown conjugated below:
calla (wk) gefa (str)
1s calla gef
2s callast gefyst
3s calle gefe
1p callom gefom
2p callyd gefyd
3p calla gefa
1s callad gaf
2s calladyr gaft
3s callad gaf
1p callodom gafom
2p callod gafod
3p callodo gafo
The middle voice is sometimes found in set phrases, but is not productive: ec
callonc Osdom "I'm called Daniel" is as common as ec calla mec Osdom.
The strong verbs are derived in the main from the Seven Strong Conjugations of Old
Norse. The more common verbs became the Norreyna strong verbs, the rest
migrated to the weak conjugation.
5.2 Preterite-Present Verbs
These are the "modal" verbs- aya "to have", conna "to be able", thofyra "to need",
scula "shall", mona "will", meya "to be allowed", wilya "to want" and wera "to
be". The present tense forms of these verbs are given below.
aya: o, ot, o, ayom, ayod, ayo
conna: can, cant, can, conom, conod, cono
thofyra: thafyr, thaftyr, thafyr, tharfom, tharfod, tharfo
scula: scal, scalt, scal, scolom, scolod, scolo
mona: mon, mont, mon, monom, monod, mono
meya: mo, mot, mo, meyom, meyod, meyo
wilya: wil, wilt, wil, wilyom, wilid, wilya
wera: em, ert, is, erom, erod, eru
Norreyna has two participles, the present and past. The present participle is formed by
adding -nd to the infinitive. Weak verbs form their past participle by adding
-d to the infinitive: calland, callad. Many srong verbs form their past
participles with -en: gefen, from gefa.
5.4 Compound Tenses
The perfect tense of verbs is formed with an auxiliary and the past participle.
The auxiliary is either aya or wera. If the verb is an intransitive verb of
motion, the auxilliary is wera: ec em comen "I have come". All other verbs have
aya as their auxiliary: we ayom callad thec "we've called you".
The future tense is formed with an auxiliary and the infinitive. The infinitives
are scula and mona. Scula implies neccessity or duty: thu ne scalt ay nida
"thou shalt not work evil". Mona has no such inference: ec mon coma "I will
Like French, Norreyna has a double negative, which "breackets" the verb. The
preceding element is "ne", and the following element is either "ay" or (more
forceful) ac'. Ec n'o ay thin bonad "I haven't got your stuff", ec n'o ac' thin
bonad "I DO NOT have your stuff!!".
There we go, a speedy outline of Norreyna. What do you think? Comments, criticisms,
questions, drinks are all very welcome!
Ka yokonáu iti báyan: "cas'alyá abhiyo".
Ka tso iti mantabayan: "yama zaláyá
alánekayam la s'alika, cas'alika; ka yama
yavarryekayan arannáam la vácika, labekayam
vácika, ka ali cas'alyeko vanotira."