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Austronesian style Latin...

From:Barry Garcia <montrei13@...>
Date:Sunday, May 6, 2007, 12:15
Not quite, but if you remember back a bit, I mentioned interest in
applying Austronesian sound changes to Latin to come up with an
Austronesian influenced Romance language.


I decided against that (well, not totally true, but read on), but
decided to do something more like a creole (in that its got two
linguistic influences, and a simpler grammar than both languages would
have), mixing up elements of Malayo-Polynesian languages with Latin.
Not sure what to call it though.

Anyway, here are the sound changes. These are probably not all 100%
plausible (well, maybe, they sound fine to me), but are more about
getting the look and sound right. Of course, the sound isn't 100%
convincing Malayo-Polynesian (at least Philippine style), but I think
in many ways, it looks close.

I've used Ralph Penny's "A History of the Spanish Language" as a sort
of guide for the sound changes I made.

Phonology: Very much basic to Philippine languages and somewhat to Indonesian:

Vowels: a, e, i, o, u

Diphthongs: aj (ay), au (aw), ej (ey), oj (oy)

Consonants: b, d, k, g, h, tS (c), dZ (j), l, m, n, N (ng), J (ny), p,
r, s, S (sy), t, w, J (y)

I decided to have the vowels follow mostly what happened with Spanish
for convenience, as outlined by Ralph Penny, but to add in a few
changes of my own.

Where Latin short E and O became /je/ and /we/ in Spanish, they became
/aj/ - ay and /oj/ - oy

Intial vowels in open syllables tend to get dropped to reduce word
which is more than 3 syllables long down to 3 syllables (what seems to
be permissible at least in Philippine roots).

Word final E mostly drops except in monosyllabic words, or where it
may create monosyllabic words. Where it remains it changes to /i/,
unless preceeded by a glide.

Syllable final O changes to /u/

Stressed E and O, and E and O in a word Initial syllable change to /i/
and /u/ (might not be too realistic, but it gives me the right look
and sound), *unless* it causes homonyms to appear.

An epenthetic vowel /a/ is often added to monosyllabic words that are
used either as nouns, verbs, or adjectives and adverbs

Consonants show the most change, and influence the sound of Latinu.

Consonants with following glides show some changes.

BI, BE /bj/ remain as /bj/ - by: RUBEU > lubyu, NOVIU > nubyu
CI, CE /kj/ remains as /kj/ -  ky: CALCEA > kakya, FACIE > pakye
DI, DE /dj/ change to /dZ/ - j: RADIARE > rajal
GI, GE /gj/ remains as /gj/ - gy: FAGEA > pagya, EXAGIU > sagyu
NI, NE became /J/ - ny: ARANEA > ranya, VINEA > binya
PI, PE /pj/ remain as /pj/ - py: APIU > apyu, PEORE > apyol
RE, RI /4j/ changes to /lj/ -ly: AUGURIU > gulyu. AREA > alya
SI, SE /sj/ change to /Sj/ - sy: MANSIONE > masyung
TI, TE /tj/ change to /tS/ - c: PUTEU > pocu, MARTIU > malcu

Most intial and intervocalic consonants remain the same, except two:

F /f/ becomes /p/: FAGEA > pagya, FARINA > palina
R /4/ becomes /l/ in all positions: RENIONE > linyung, HAC HORA > akula
RR /r/ becomes /4/: CARRU > karu, SERRA > sayra

Only a couple of consonants change from Latin:

R becomes L /l/ everywhere: RACEMU > lakimu, DORSUM > dulsu, TAURU >
tulu, RADIARE > rajal

Final N velarizes at the ends of words: MANSION(E) > masyung (e drops first)

Consonant clusters show the most effects of sound changes.

BD > d – DEBITA > dida
BL > by – NEBULA > naybya
BR > pr – LIBERARE > lipral
BT > d – CUBITU > kodu
CM > m - DECIMU > daymu
CN > n  - DURACINU > duranu
CT > t – PLACITU > pyatu
CT + glide > c /tS/ - DIRECTIARE > dilecal
DC > k – DUODECIM > adok
DC > k – LUDICARE > lukal
DN > n – FRIDENANDU > prinantu
DR > j /dZ/ - HEDERA > ayja
FC > k – SANCTIFICARE > sangikal
FR > pr – BIFERA > bipra
LC, LQ > lk – ALIQUOD > alkod
LD > ld – SOLIDU > suldu
ML > l – CUMULU > kulu
ML > ny – TREMULARE > cinyal
MN > n – HOMINE > uni
MPL > nl – POMPELONE > punlong
MPR > pr – TEMPORANU > tipranu
MPT > nt – COMPUTARE > kuntal
MR > my – HUMERU > umyu
MT > nt – SEMITA > sinta
NC > ngk – DOMINICU > dumingku
NDC > ngk - VINDICARE > bingkal
NDN > n – LENDINE > layni
NGN > n – SANGUINE > sani
NM > nm – ANIMA > anma
NR > ny – GENERU > genyu
NR > ny – INGENERARE > ngenyal
NS > s - MENSA > mesa
NT > nt – BONITATE > buntat
NTC > ng – PANTICE > pangi
PD > d – CUPIDITIA > kudica
PL > py . POPULU > pupyu
PR > pr – PAUPERE > pupri
PT > t – CAPITALE > katal
PTM > tn – SEPTIMANA > sitnana
RDC > lk – QUATTUORDECIM > katulki
RS > ls - DORSUM > dulsu
SC > k – RESCARE > likal
SCP > p – EPISCOPU > pipu
SL > sy /Sj/ - ISULA > isya
SN > sn – ASINU > asnu
SPT > st – HOSPITALE > ustal
STC > sk – MASTICARE > maskal
TC > k – PORTATICU > pultaku
TL > l > CAPITULU > kapilu
TM > tn > EPITHEMA > pitna
TN > tn – CATENATU > katnatu
TR > c /tS/ - LATERALE > lacal
TTR > c /tS/ - LITTERA > lica
VT > d – CIVITATE > kidat

You'll see inconsistencies with historical Latin to Old Spanish sound
changes (such as a lack of palatalization of certain consonants, but
I'm OK with that).

The only other bits I've got are that verbs do not conjugate, and
remain in their "infinitive forms. So, all of those wonderful Romance
conjugations don't exist in this language. The only way to say when
something happens is to use a time indicator:

tinil yu - I have, I am having,
ya tinil yu - I had (already).
akula bidil yu - I have (at the moment)
mani tinil yu - I had yesterday
loyku tinil yu - I will have

There is also a VSO word order, just as you find in Philippine
languages as the default.

That's about it. I am beginning to really like it.


Roger Mills <rfmilly@...>
Henrik Theiling <theiling@...>
Benct Philip Jonsson <conlang@...>