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Re: THEORY: Articulatory phonetics (was Re: THEORY: unergative)

From:Jörg Rhiemeier <joerg_rhiemeier@...>
Date:Monday, February 23, 2004, 17:31

On Sun, 22 Feb 2004 19:45:18 -0600,
Herman Miller <hmiller@...> wrote:

> Trebor Jung wrote: > > [...] > > it's impossible to see what phoneme goes with what point of articulation! > > Understandable. The problem is that X-SAMPA is such a haphazardly > designed system that it's very difficult to remember without a chart.
It is, and many symbols are chosen poorly. It seems that human readability wasn't a design goal. No wonder so many proposals to modify the systems were made, and the CONLANG community has developed their own (poorly standardized) version of it.
> I > still keep a printout of the chart next to my computer when reading or > writing posts that use X-SAMPA. The diacritics are especially bad. And > there really isn't any easier way to describe the sounds than to use the > technical terms.
My dissatisfaction with X-SAMPA, Kirschenbaum etc. led me to the development of yet another system, CPA ,a few years ago. CPA was explicitly designed to be human-readable and intuitive, yet as systematic as I could achieve. It certainly isn't perfect, though. Here's my Trebor-friendly CPA chart: Plosives: Bilabial [p], [b] Alveolar [t], [d] Retroflex [t.], [d.] Palatal [c], [J] Velar [k], [g] Uvular [q], [Q] Glottal [?] Nasals: Bilabial [m] Labiodental [M] Alveolar [n] Retroflex [n.] Palatal ["n] Velar [N] Uvular ["N] Trills: Bilabial ["B] Alveolar ["r] Uvular ["R] Alveolar tap: [r] Retroflex flap: [r.] Fricatives: Bilabial [P], [B] Labiodental [f], [v] Dental [T], [D] Alveolar [s], [z] Postalveolar [S], [Z] Retroflex [s.], [z.] Palatal [C], ["j] Velar [x], [G] Uvular [X], [R] Pharyngeal [H], [9] Glottal [h], ["h] Lateral fricatives (alveolar): ["l], ["Z] Approximants: Labiodental ["v] Alveolar [*r] Retroflex [*r.] Palatal [j] Labial-palatal ["y] Velar ["w] Labial-velar [w] Lateral approximants: Alveolar [l] Retroflex [l.] Palatal [L] Velar ["L] Diacritics: _h voiceless _: breathy voiced _d dental _v voiced _~ creaky voiced _a apical ^h aspirated _m linguolabial _l laminal _) more rounded ^w labialized ~ nasalized _( less rounded ^j palatalized ^n nasal release _+ advanced ^G velarized ^l lateral release _- retracted ^9 pharyngealized ^7 no audible release ^: centralized ^~ velarized or pharyngealized ^x mid-centralized _^ raised _| syllabic _V lowered _` non-syllabic _< advanced tongue root ^r rhoticity _> retracted tongue root And here's the vowels: first unrounded, then rounded. Close front: [i], [y] Close central: [*i], [*u] Close back: ["i], [u] Between close and close-mid: front [I], [Y], central [*I] [*U] and back ["I], [U] Close-mid front: [e], ["o] Close-mid central: [*e], [*o] Close-mid back: ["e], [o] Mid central unrounded (schwa): [@] Open-mid front: [E], ["O] Open-mid central: [*E], [*O] Open-mid back: ["E], [O] Between open-mid and open: front unrounded [&], central unrounded [*a]. Open front: [a], ["6]. Open back: [A], [6]. Greetings, Jörg.