Re: THEORY: Articulatory phonetics (was Re: THEORY: unergative)
|From:||Jörg Rhiemeier <joerg_rhiemeier@...>|
|Date:||Monday, February 23, 2004, 17:31|
On Sun, 22 Feb 2004 19:45:18 -0600,
Herman Miller <hmiller@...> wrote:
> Trebor Jung wrote:
> > [...]
> > it's impossible to see what phoneme goes with what point of articulation!
> Understandable. The problem is that X-SAMPA is such a haphazardly
> designed system that it's very difficult to remember without a chart.
It is, and many symbols are chosen poorly. It seems that human
readability wasn't a design goal. No wonder so many proposals
to modify the systems were made, and the CONLANG community
has developed their own (poorly standardized) version of it.
> still keep a printout of the chart next to my computer when reading or
> writing posts that use X-SAMPA. The diacritics are especially bad. And
> there really isn't any easier way to describe the sounds than to use the
> technical terms.
My dissatisfaction with X-SAMPA, Kirschenbaum etc. led me to the
development of yet another system, CPA ,a few years ago.
CPA was explicitly designed to be human-readable and intuitive,
yet as systematic as I could achieve. It certainly isn't perfect,
Here's my Trebor-friendly CPA chart:
Bilabial [p], [b]
Alveolar [t], [d]
Retroflex [t.], [d.]
Palatal [c], [J]
Velar [k], [g]
Uvular [q], [Q]
Alveolar tap: [r]
Retroflex flap: [r.]
Bilabial [P], [B]
Labiodental [f], [v]
Dental [T], [D]
Alveolar [s], [z]
Postalveolar [S], [Z]
Retroflex [s.], [z.]
Palatal [C], ["j]
Velar [x], [G]
Uvular [X], [R]
Pharyngeal [H], 
Glottal [h], ["h]
Lateral fricatives (alveolar): ["l], ["Z]
_h voiceless _: breathy voiced _d dental
_v voiced _~ creaky voiced _a apical
^h aspirated _m linguolabial _l laminal
_) more rounded ^w labialized ~ nasalized
_( less rounded ^j palatalized ^n nasal release
_+ advanced ^G velarized ^l lateral release
_- retracted ^9 pharyngealized ^7 no audible release
^: centralized ^~ velarized or pharyngealized
^x mid-centralized _^ raised
_| syllabic _V lowered
_` non-syllabic _< advanced tongue root
^r rhoticity _> retracted tongue root
And here's the vowels: first unrounded, then rounded.
Close front: [i], [y]
Close central: [*i], [*u]
Close back: ["i], [u]
Between close and close-mid: front [I], [Y],
central [*I] [*U] and back ["I], [U]
Close-mid front: [e], ["o]
Close-mid central: [*e], [*o]
Close-mid back: ["e], [o]
Mid central unrounded (schwa): [@]
Open-mid front: [E], ["O]
Open-mid central: [*E], [*O]
Open-mid back: ["E], [O]
Between open-mid and open: front unrounded [&], central unrounded [*a].
Open front: [a], ["6].
Open back: [A], .