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Sources of Irregularity (was: Re: Isolating, Inflected, Word Building, ETC.)

From:Elliott Lash <erelion12@...>
Date:Thursday, December 8, 2005, 7:14
Jim Henry Wrote:

> Something similar happened in French with three or > more > different verbs combining to be the different stems > of "être" in various persons, tenses and moods. But > I can't > recall what the specific Latin or Old French verbs > were. > I think one was related to "suivre" (to follow); > indeed > the first person singular present indicative active > is the same for both "être" and "suive", "je suis". > A quick Google search didn't turn up anything.
Etre in French (with no accents): present suis, es, est, sommes, etes, sont imperfect: etais, etais, etait, etions, etiez, etaient past (simple) fus, fus, fut, fumes, futes, furent subjunctive sois, sois, soit, soyons, soyez, soient imperfect subjunctive fusse, fusses, fut, fussions, fussiez, fussent future serai, seras, sera, serons, serez, seront conditional serais, serais, serait, serions, seriez, seraient past participle ete present participle etant infinitive etre Origin: 1) All of the present is from Latin: sum, es, est, sumus, estis, sunt. The -s in "suis" is analogical, Old French was "sui". 2) Unsure where the Imperfect came from. The Old French imperfect had two variants, one survived in Modern French, one did not: iere, ieres, iert/iere, eriiens, eriiez, ierent. (from Latin: eram, eras, erat, eramus, eratis, erant) The one that did survive was: estoie (etc etc). This was from the imperfect of the Latin verb: stare "to stand" 3) Past Simple is from Latin: fui, fuisti, fuit, fuimus, fuistis, fuerunt 4) The subjunctive wasx some how derived from Latin: sim, sis, sit, simus, sitis, sint. 5) The impefect subunction derived from Latin's Pluperfect Subjunctive: fuissem, fuisses, fuisset, fuissemus, fuissetis, fuissent 6) The future is from the Latin Verb: sedere "to sit". In Old French, the Latin future of "esse" survived: (i)er, (i)ers, (i)ert, (i)ermes, no 2nd plural, (i)erent. This was from Latin erim, eris, erit, erimus, eritis, erunt. Another future was, in Old French, estrai, estras, estra (etc). This was the future of the Vulgure LAtin verb "essere". 7) The past participle is the past participle of the Latin verb stare: statum 8) The present participle is from Latin "stare" also: stans 9) The infinitive is from Vulgar Latin "essere" a form build from Classical "esse" plus the usual infinitive ending. So, there are 5 bases: esse (present, OF imperfect, OF future, subjunctive) essere (infinitive, OF future) sedere (Future, Conditional) fu- (Indo-European -bhew-, English "be", past, impft subj) stare (imperfect, participles) Of course, essere and esse are originally just one Latin base. -Elliott.
> Jim Henry > > ...Mind the gmail Reply-to: field >
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