Trigger languages-- exs.
|From:||Roger Mills <romilly@...>|
|Date:||Wednesday, January 15, 2003, 12:04|
Here are the promised exs. from Tsou, an Austronesian lang. of Taiwan. They
are somewhat less illuminating IMO than I originally thought them to be,
(Data from Shigeru Tsuchida's Yale diss, 1975; it was later published and
the publ. version may differ.) The diss. is concerned mainly with
historical reconstruction, so the grammar portion is just a sketch. There
are several verb classes distinguished mainly as to which AF marker they
take; the morphophonemics can be very complicated; for ex. Class I takes
/-Vm-/ infix for AF, Class IV-AF has 0 marker (as apparently in this ex.).
(Abbrev. obl = oblique "case", nom= "nominative"). |c| is [ts], the rest
pretty much standard.
1. Actor Focus (AF). (Class IV, 0 marker)
micu ruvaho ta porave ta ?avari ?e pasura
already borrow:AF obl bolo obl. (name) nom (name)
"Pasura borrowed a bolo-knife from Avari"
Note: the obl. marker ta is glossed "Oblique (visible)". The nom. marker is
further glossed "visible/near"
2. Goal Focus (GF). Suffix /-a/
i-si ruvah-a ta pasura ?e porave no ?avari
by-him borrow-GF obl P. nom bolo obl. A.
"The bolo of Avari was borrowed by Pasura ~ Pasura borrowed the bolo from
Note: The obl. no is glossed "Obl(unknown)"
3. Locative Focus (LF) Suffix -i
i-si ruvah-i ta porave ta pasura ?e ?avari
"Avari was borrowed a bolo from by Pasura ~ Pasura borrowed a bolo from A."
4. Instrumental/Benefactive Focus (IBF) Suffx -neni
i-si ruvah-neni ta porave ta pasura ?e ?avari
by-him borrow-IBF obl bolo obl P. nom A
"Avari was borrowed a bolo for by Pasura ~ Pasura borrowed a bolo (from s.o.
else) for Avari"
A slightly different example, interrogative and apparently a Class II verb
1. AF (Class II, prefix më- [m@-])
sia na mo më-frë?së
who nom-iuk (punctual) AF-cover
"Who is the one who covered?"
Note: nom-iuk means nom-invisible/unknown
2. GF (suffix -a)
cuma na ko frë?s-a
what nom by-you cover-GF
"What is the one that was covered by you? ~ What did you cover?"
3. LF (suffix -i)
i ko frë?s-i nenu
by you cover-LF where
"Where was it covered by you? ~ Where did you cover it?"
4. IBF (suffix -neni [here, allomorph -eni])
cuma na ko frë?s-eni
what nom by-you cover-IBF
"What is the one which was covered with by you? ~ What did you cover with? ~
What did you use for a cover?"