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Trigger languages-- exs.

From:Roger Mills <romilly@...>
Date:Wednesday, January 15, 2003, 12:04
Here are the promised exs. from Tsou, an Austronesian lang. of Taiwan.  They
are somewhat less illuminating IMO than I originally thought them to be,
(Data from Shigeru Tsuchida's Yale diss, 1975; it was later published and
the publ. version may differ.)  The diss. is concerned mainly with
historical reconstruction, so the grammar portion is just a sketch. There
are several verb classes distinguished mainly as to which AF marker they
take; the morphophonemics can be very complicated; for ex. Class I takes
/-Vm-/ infix for AF, Class IV-AF has 0 marker (as apparently in this ex.).
(Abbrev.  obl = oblique "case",  nom= "nominative").  |c| is [ts], the rest
pretty much standard.

1. Actor Focus (AF). (Class IV, 0 marker)

micu     ruvaho          ta   porave    ta    ?avari     ?e    pasura
already  borrow:AF  obl  bolo      obl.  (name)     nom  (name)
"Pasura borrowed a bolo-knife from Avari"
Note: the obl. marker ta is glossed "Oblique (visible)".  The nom. marker is
further glossed "visible/near"

2. Goal Focus (GF).  Suffix /-a/
i-si     ruvah-a     ta     pasura   ?e  porave    no ?avari
by-him borrow-GF obl  P.     nom   bolo    obl.   A.
"The bolo of Avari was borrowed by Pasura  ~ Pasura borrowed the bolo from

Note:  The obl. no is glossed "Obl(unknown)"

3. Locative Focus (LF)  Suffix -i
i-si     ruvah-i   ta porave ta pasura ?e ?avari
"Avari was borrowed a bolo from by Pasura ~ Pasura borrowed a bolo from A."

4. Instrumental/Benefactive Focus (IBF) Suffx -neni
i-si ruvah-neni ta porave ta pasura ?e ?avari
by-him borrow-IBF obl  bolo  obl P.  nom A
"Avari was borrowed a bolo for by Pasura ~ Pasura borrowed a bolo (from s.o.
else) for Avari"

A slightly different example, interrogative and apparently a Class II verb

1. AF (Class II, prefix më- [m@-])
sia    na           mo             më-frë?së
who  nom-iuk  (punctual)  AF-cover
"Who is the one who covered?"
Note:  nom-iuk means nom-invisible/unknown

2. GF (suffix -a)
cuma    na        ko     frë?s-a
what   nom     by-you cover-GF
"What is the one that was covered by you? ~ What did you cover?"

3. LF (suffix -i)
i  ko    frë?s-i        nenu
by you cover-LF   where
"Where was it covered by you? ~ Where did you cover it?"

4. IBF (suffix -neni [here, allomorph -eni])
cuma    na      ko    frë?s-eni
what   nom  by-you cover-IBF
"What is the one which was covered with by you? ~ What did you cover with? ~
What did you use for a cover?"