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From:R. Nierse <rnierse@...>
Date:Wednesday, October 6, 1999, 11:31
Has anyone ever heard of this conlang?

If not, read on.

A long time ago Boudewijn told the exams that students take in Leiden for
Language Description. He told that it was allowed to use invented words or
contructions, just as long you can show with them that you understand the
Last week I cleaned up my attic and found an exam I made on january 29
1990. I would like to share this with y'all, because some questions are
about a conlang: Sakardido. I will give you the examples and the questions
that go with it.

My question to you: can you deduct/see what language(s) was the inspiration
for Sakardido ?

The exam:
"Study the following sentences of the fictitious [is this a correct word?
RN] language Sakardido carefully:

1a      waz wuquc               the boy walks
1b      gogo yuquc              the girl walks
1c      it buquc                        the horse walks

2a      wazba duwaquc           the boys walk
2b      gogobo duwaquc  the girls walk
2c      itbi ruwaquc            the horses walk

3a      dun waz wep'ec          I see the boy
3b      dun gogo yep'ec         I see the girl
3c      dun it bep'ec           I see the horse

4a      dun wazba deyap'ec      I see the boys
4b      dun gogobo deyap'ec     I see the girls
4c      dun itbi reyap'ec               I see the horses

5a      wazn gogo yep'ec        the boy sees the girl
5b      gogon waz wep'ec        the girl sees the boy
5c      gogon du yep'ec         the girl sees me

6a      du wanac                I (male) swim
6b      du yanac                I (female) swim

7a      te ba?anac              we swim
7b      te badunac              we both swim
7c      gogobon wazba dedup'ec  the girls see the two boys
7d      wazban te dedup'ec      the boys see us both

Question 1a
Indicate wherre the morpheme boundaries are.
(help: there are three verb roots: uqu, ep'e and ana. -c indicates time)

Q 1b
What are morphemes? What are allomorphs?

Q 1c
What kind of morphemes occur in the above examples, judging the position of
the morphemes in the word; give examples

Q 2
Study how in this language the actants are marked in the verb, and how
number. In answering this, make use of the symbols S (Subject of
intransitive verbs), A (agent of transitive verb) and O (patient of
transitive verb).

Q 2a
Is this language (from a morphological point of view) nominative-accusative
or ergative-absolutive? (and why?)

Q 2b
Describe the class system of this language (pay attention to both singular
and plural forms)

Q 2c
What is the function of the case ending -n?

Q 3a
How is number coded in the noun and how in the verb; also treat the formal
aspect; try in both cases to give a explanation of the distribution of the

Q 3b
What are allophones?

Q 3c
What is vocal harmony (give an example of Sakardido)

Q 4
Study the following sentences:
8a      dun waz wuquluc I make the boy walk
8b      wazban du yuquluc       ?
bc      dun gogos wazba deyap'eluc      I show the boys to the girls

NB -s marks indirect object

Q 4a
Which grammatical category is indicated by the morpheme that is extra in
comparison to wuquc in 1a?

Q 4b
Translate 8b

Q 4c
What are the consequences of adding -lu for the valency of respectively
intransitive and transitive verbs? (make use of the case endings too in
your explanation)

END of Sakardido