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Re: A Survey

From:Nik Taylor <yonjuuni@...>
Date:Tuesday, September 30, 2003, 5:26
Rob Haden wrote:
> > I'm curious to see everyone's answers to the following questions: > > 1. Does your language(s) distinguish between active ("X breaks Y"), middle > ("X breaks (apart)"), and passive ("X is broken (by Y)")?
Active and antipassive, yes. Middle, kinda. Many verbs can be intransitive or transitive. For example, "break", you could have "break X-erg Y-abs" or "break X-abs" which would be like a middle voice Also, Continental Vulgar Uatakassi distinguished passive.
> 2. If the answer to #1 was "yes," what method(s) does your language(s) use > to make some/all of the above distinctions?
Antipassive is marked by a prefix. In CVU, there was no single way to mark passive. The basic method was to use an auxiliary, but which auxiliary was used depended on the verb. For example: The man told the boy the story. The boy heard-tell the story (from the man) The story spoke-itself-tell to the boy (by the man) The man tore the paper. The paper split-tear (by the man) The man hit the boy The boy hurt-hit (by the man) The man kicked the boy The boy hurt-kick (by the man) The farmer killed the pig The pig died-kill (by the farmer) The soldier stabbed the enemy The enemy died-stab (by the soldier) - if it resulted in death The enemy hurt-stab (by the solider) - if the enemy survived The woman grew the flowers The flowers lived-grow (by the woman) The man gave the boy a book The boy received-give a book (from the man) The book went-give to the boy (by the man) And so forth. "See" was used as a generic when no specific verb fit.
> 3. What method(s) does your language(s) use to distinguish between basic > nouns and verbs of the same root (i.e. "a hit" vs. "he hits")?
Verbal/nominal morphology for one. Some verbs and nouns share a common root, for example, _klu_ can be either "a stab" or "to stab". However, there could never be confusion, because when actually used, the noun would require, at the very least, a gender marker (pi-), while the verb could occur in the bare stem if used as an imperative, otherwise would have to have personal affixes at the least. Also, there are a number of nominalizing and verbalizing suffixes that are sometimes used, as well as completely different roots in some cases. -- "There's no such thing as 'cool'. Everyone's just a big dork or nerd, you just have to find people who are dorky the same way you are." - overheard ICQ: 18656696 AIM Screen-Name: NikTaylor42