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Zamenhof 16 rules in your conlang

From:Carlos Thompson <chlewey@...>
Date:Sunday, April 7, 2002, 18:24
Trying to describe Tokcir (NGL), I come out with a paraphrase of
Zamenhof 16 rules of Esperanto adapted to Tokcir.  The results:

1.       The definite article is {ku} and the indefinite article is
{òl}, these articles are invariable.

2.      Nouns have tree numbers plus the unmarked general: the singular
adds {­m},  the plural adds {­s} and the paucal adds {­r}.  There are
three marked cases plus the unmarked general: the nominative adds {­om},
the accusative adds {­ac} and the dative adds {­ad}.

3.      Adjectives do not decline in case or number.  The positive
comparative is formed adding {­ya}, the negative is formed by adding
{­inya} and the superlative is formed adding the definite article to the

4.      The basic cardinal numbers are for the units: {sero}, {ol},
{du}, {po}, {ka}, {fi}, {zun}, {ca}, {we}, {ne}, {i'a}, {am}, {vu},
{mi'}, {le}, {us}, {fox}.  For tens the suffix {­ti} is added.  Ordinals
add {­ton}.

5.      The personal pronouns are formed by the number marker {m­},
{r}­, {s­}, the person marker {­o­}, {­a­}, {­e­} and the vowel-less
case marker {­m}, {­c}, {­d}.  This way "I" is mom, while accusative
"me" is moc and "we" is som.  Possessives are formed by adding the
person marker to the noun.

6.      Verbs decline according to the verbal system in use, either
traditional, proposed or vector tense.  Please look at the grammar

7.      Adverbs are formed by adding {­ig} to the adjective and are
compared as adjectives.

8.      All prepositions govern the case-unmarked noun.

9.      Every word is pronounced as it is spelt.

10.   The stress is on the first syllable, unless marked otherwise.

11.   Compound words are formed by the simple junction of words (without
declension).  The chief word comes first.

12.   Serial negations negate each other, but should be avoided.

13.   To show motion towards the place word takes the {­ya} ending or a
dynamic vector particles is used.

14.   Each preposition has a definite fixed meaning.

15.   The so called foreign words, undergo no change beyond conforming
with the orthography and the restrictions of Tokcir.

16.   Certain words may be replaced in writing by their logographs.
Mainly the definite article {ku}/{q} and the disjunctive and conjunctive
conjunctions {'ior}/{|}, {et}/{&}.  Some tense particles do the same.

I could also try the 16 rules for other of my languages.  Chleweyish,
for instance, would give:

1.      There is no artilcles.

2.      Nouns have no declation.

3.      There are no articles, they are replaced by static predicates

4.      The basic cardinal numerals are 0: <ba>, 1: <rey>, 2: <raw>, 4:
<rap>, 8: <rur>, 16: <ghey>, 32: <gaw>, 64: <gap>, 128: <gur>, 256:
<fey>, 512: <faw>, 1024: <fap>, 2048: <fur>, 4096: <jey>, 8192: <jaw>,
16384: <jap>, 32768: <jur>.  The suffixes <-set> means "time and a
half", <-yor> "time and a quarter", <-sot>, "time plus three quarters",
<-yam> = "×1 1/8", <-yom> = "×1 3/8", <-sen> = "×1 5/8", <-son> = "×1
7/8".  For ordinals, they are given predicate ending.

5.      The personal are <doy> ... (I gorgot those...)

6.      Predicates (verbs) decline for aspect and indirect object.

7.      Adverbs are invariable.  There is no way to mark if serial
predicates apply to a noun or another predicate.

8.      There are a few postpositions.

9.      Every native word is pronounced as it is spelt, after reductions
and predictable allophonies have been applied.

10.     The accent is on the first syllable unless marked otherwhise.

11.     Compund words are formed by just putting the words togheter,
with the modifying word put after and given predicate ending.

12.     Multiple negation is allowed but its meaning is unclear.  A
negative sentence must end in a negative adverb.

13.     To show motions towards, the word takes the indirect object

14.     Postpositions have no definite meaning.

15.     Foreign words undergo no change unless nitivized, in this case
they just barely conform to the orthography and phonology of Chleweyish.

16.     No letter may be dropped.

Well, how about our other conlangs...?

-- Carlos Th


John Cowan <jcowan@...>