Re: EXERCISE: Small grammar exercise
|From:||Jake X <alwaysawake247@...>|
|Date:||Tuesday, July 2, 2002, 19:27|
I had to work a bit on my interrogative system for this exercise.. so
<<a) [Tom] goes by Underground.>>
INS- instrumental (gia), by means of INT-interogative pronoun (not
intransitive verb) V-verb N-noun
Q: kialage shashu gia kaviuo?
INT V INS N
what-one(person, place or thing) travels-present-singular INS horse
A: tom eshashuo gia
N V-inf INS... (implied)
tom traveling by means of
I worked out that my complement separators can also replace the previously
said clause (from the question).
<<b) I show [Milly] [my new car].>>
IO- indirect object separator (sia), DO- direct object separator (bia)
Q1: tovadupadu bia mili sia kialage?
N-V DO N IO INT
I-make-see DO Milly IO what-one?
A1: (tovadupadu) sia sukaie kaviuo
(N-V) IO D N
(I-make-see) IO new horse
Q2: tovadupadu bia kialage sia sukaie kaviuo
N-V DO INT IO D N
I-make-see DO what-one IO new horse
A2: (tovadupadu) bia mili
(N-V) DO N
(I-make-see) DO Milly
<<c) She felt [very unhappy].>>
PN - predicate nominative (seperator of states of being), AUG - augmentative
Q: kosashi bia kiafokaie?
N-V PN* INT
he/she-felt PN what-way-being-D
* The separator "bia" does not only function as a direct objet separator.
elanagiuo does not make the distinction.
A: bia te dagaie kogi
PN AUG D V
PN AUG unhappily he/she-existed
This construction does not allow a verb before "bia" because the final
"kogi" would be redundant. In the case of predicate nominatives and states
of being, elanagiuo does not use the construction "Joe is sad," but rather,
"Joe <bia> sadly he-is." In theory, all elanagiuo descriptors are adverbs,
but can describe nouns because of their derivation. The -auo ending
corresponds to the esperanto -anto, signifying the actor. Thus, -aie, is
derived from -auo, signifying that the described noun is acting in the way
of the root, or "rooting." Esigauo - happy person; esigaie - being a happy
person, et cetera. The adjective/adverb is treated as a verb form.
<<d) Miriam likes [strawberry] icecream.>>
Q: kialagaie shauamuiuo iuu* bia Miriam?
INT-D N V DO N
what-one-D cold-milk (cold-water is ice) pleases-present-singular-stem DO
*iuu is the present singular stem of my favorite word, eiuuo, which i love
so much because I can get away with a million vowels (eiuauo, a derived
form, contains all five phonemic vowels). It's cheating, though, because
elanagiuo spells /w/ u and /j/ i. This is because of the elanagauo script I
now rarely use, which insists on one vowel after every consonent, with
semitic-style vowel marks. So I devised an upper/lower case vowel system,
with one kind of vowel marked normally above the consonent-character, and
another "upper-case" written large like a consonent and having a vowel mark
above it itself. Hence, short u = w, etc., but written, as the case may be,
like a consonent or a vowel. So, eiuauo, would be written (where initial
upper case vowels do not need marked vowels above them): EIuAuO, or
/e.ju.a.wo/ (my notation is probably incorect).
A: ebadiie (shauamuiuo) (iuu) bia
D (N) (V) DO
berry/fruit-D (cold-milk) (pleases-present-singular-stem) DO
<<e) [My] brother is [twenty years] old.>>
GEN - genitive; DS-descriptive separator, for phrases that take the Genitive
Q1: faliuo kialageshe nasaki shia tshe ialiua (tuue)*?
N INT-GEN V DS D N (D)
what-one-GEN-D brother was-born DS twenty years (below)?
*tuue, below, is not necesary, because the past tense of enasakuo (nasaki)
A1: faliuo toshe
A1a: faliuo shel to
N GEN N
sibling of-GEN me
Q2: faliuo shel to nasaki shia kianamue ialiua?
N GEN N V DS INT-D N
sibling of me was-born DS what-amount-D years?
<<f) [The children] take the bus to Oxford Circus.>>
P - preposition (may be dependent on verb)
Q: kioloke ieua gia kaviuo bia Oxford Circus
INT V INS N P N
what-one(s) enter by-means-of horse into* oxford circus
*I minimized use of prepositions (other than the bia, kia... series) by
giving bia different meanings in different contexts. As a preposition, bia
completes the meaning of the verb. with eieuo, to enter, bia takes the
meaning of to, or into. Thus, toieu bia, means I enter into, though
elanagiuo gives a broader definition of "to enter" than the english sense.
A: faniua ieua bia
N V P
children enter into
NOTE: depending on the stress, one can also say, "faniua ieua gia," which
would emphasis the horse (bus) over the circus.
<<g) [Last year] they spent their holidays [in Italy].>>
Q: kiatake gogia biatake bokagatiua shia ieue Italy
INT-D N-V DO N DS P N
what-time they-existed during-DO good-days DS in Italy
A: shia tuue iariuo
DS D N
DS below year
<<h) He works very hard [because he wants to earn a lot of money].>>
Q: Kiaiotie te kolabu?
INT-D AUG N-V
what-reason very he-works
A: bia(iotie) kovolu sia egabukopaduo bia te moniua
DO(-D) N-V IO Vinfinitive DO AUG N
because he/she-wants DO to-possess-himself-make DO AUG moneys
<<i) She wanted to buy [a book].>>
Q: kovoli sia egabukopaduo bia kialage?
N-V IO Vinfinitive DO INT
he/she-wanted IO to-possess-herself-make DO what-one?
A: bia libeliuo
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