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Re: THEORY: Uses of reduplication

From:ROGER MILLS <rfmilly@...>
Date:Monday, March 3, 2008, 0:11
Eric Christopherson wrote:
>>"And she would come here all the time, all the time, all the time." > >Yeah. I guess what I'm getting at is where the dividing line is between >repetition and reduplication.
Just on the basis of Indonesia, the reduplicated form has a different meaning-- with nouns it mainly pluralizes-- anak-anak "anak2" 'children', anjing2 'dogs' some forms become plural/indefinite: macam 'kind of...': dua macam anjing 'two kinds of dogs' > macam-macam anjing '(several) different/various kinds of dogs' Quite a few change the meaning radically (though there's usually still a visible relation): mata 'eye', mata2 1. eyes 2. a spy, to spy; idiomatic se-mata2 'merely, only...'; kala 'time', ber-kala2 from time to time; then there's anak-anakan 'doll'; kuda 'horse' kuda-kudaan 1. 'ride piggy-back; 2. a hobby-horse I think you can redup. lots of verbs to intensify or diminish the meaning; tidur 'sleep' tidur2 'nap' Indonesian is also full of redups. with vowel variation ("jingles") like kocar-kacir 'in disorder' (neither word exists on its own) I think speakers can almost create these on the fly; or cons.variation (rarer I think) kosong-losong 'completely empty' (kosong 'empty', no "losong") Entire doctoral dissertations have been written on redup. in Indonesian !! Engl. has some like this-- mish-mash, hoity-toity, but I can't think of any that match the other categories. I don't see your earlier "book-book" as a redup; it's more an attribute+head noun+noun combo, like housecat, man-cave ;-) or Indian-Indian vs. American-Indian.