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Re: Personal Conjugation based on Closeness

From:Roger Mills <romilly@...>
Date:Friday, March 28, 2003, 19:37
H.S.Teoh wrote:

> > > He was walking with his father and another man, and he told him > > > that he will visit him again. > > > > > >[snip] In Ebisedian, however, this is completely unambiguous:
Very ambiguous in Kash, and it's been bothering me for days. The formal/literal translation, with tense markers: senda yaharansa yam amañi i kaçun liya, i ne yakotasa re ne yatolito cis. PROG 3/walk/Past with his-father/acc and man/acc other, (and) 3/dat 3/say/Past CONJ 3/dat 3/visit/Fut again. As it stands, and out of context, the 2nd clause beginning with i 'and' would suggest strongly that there has been a change of subject. If you omitted _i_ (as you could), then the subj. of yakotasa would be assumed = subj. of yaharansa. In the clause following yakotasa, _re_ definitely indicates change of subj. Again, if re is omitted, then the subj. of yatolito = subj. of yakotasa (a sort of serial verb construction), (and may/maynot = subj.yaharan, depending on the preceding paragraph). In this second clause, the two ya- subj.markers and the two _ne_'s are completely ambiguous. To disambiguate (just as in Engl.) you'd have to repeat the nouns, or use their equiv. of "former, latter" etc. If one or another _ne_ was not replaced by a noun, it would be assumed to refer back to the "he" subj. of yaharansa. Similarly, any ya- that had no noun (nom.) supplement. A couple exs.: (Let A be the subj. of walk, B=father, C=other man) 1.(first clause unchanged), [no i 'and'] yakotasa amayeni re kaçut ya liya ne yatolito cis. ........and A told B that C would visit A again. 2. (first clause unch.), _i_ amani ne yakotasa (no RE'that') yatolito kaçute ya liya cis. ....and B told A that B would visit C again. 3. (first clause unch.), i amani ne yakotasa re ya liya ne yatolito cis. ...and B told A that C would visit A again NB this: 4. ..........i amani ne yakotasa re ya liya _netu_ yatolito cis. ...and B told A that C would visit _B_ ('himself') again. (Uh-oh, this probably needs work-- what if the verb were lolan 'protect' instead of 'toli'-- I see the solution, but this post is getting too long, and me brain hurts.)


H. S. Teoh <hsteoh@...>