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LANGUE_NATURELLE:_Les_groupes_des_verbes_en_Français_( Re:_TECH:_Official_languages_of_the_list)

From:Philippe Caquant <herodote92@...>
Date:Friday, August 20, 2004, 8:46
--- Trebor Jung <treborjung@...> wrote:

> J'ai lu que le Français utilise trois groupes des > verbes. Je n'ai pas > apprendu c'information dans l'école. SVP, > m'enseignez autour ces groupes :) >
First, "je n'ai pas apprendu" is an horrible barbarism, but as you're not a native, God will forgive you for that. Just say "je n'ai pas appris" next time. Secund: - 1st and 2nd group are regular ones. If you know how to conjugate "aimer" (1st group) and "finir" (2nd group), then you can deal with every 1st and 2nd group verbs. True, there are some minor exceptions. For ex: - "aim-er" makes "nous aim-ons" (1st pl. indicative present), but: - "mang-er" makes "nous mang-eons" at the same person, because "mang-ons" would be pronounced with a g like in "God" - jet-er (to throw) makes "je jet-te" (1st sg.indicative present). The phonetic value of the "e" changes. In some other verbs like "modeler" (to model), it gives "je modele" with an accent grave on the fist e (same phonetic change). - etc. Then you have to be careful: not every verb with an infinitive ending in "-ir" belongs to the 2nd group. For ex: courir, couvrir, cueillir, sentir... are all of the 3rd group. You cannot say: *nous courissons", but: nous courons, etc. So what is this mysterious 3rd group ? Very simple: every verb not belonging to the 1st or to the 2nd group belongs to the 3rd group. That means not only that every odd and difficult verb does, but also that nearly every 3rd group verb behaves its own way. And, even more perverse, many of these 3rd group verbs are among the most common ones in the language. For ex: faire (to do), tenir (to hold), dormir (to sleep), voir (to see), prendre (to take), rendre (to give back), mettre (tu put), connai^tre (to know), lire (to read), coudre (to sew), cuire (to cook), rire (to laugh)... The auxiliary verbs e^tre and avoir (to be, to have) are very irregular and also belong to the 3rd group. Then there are also some 3rd group verbs which are ancient ones and are less and less used nowadays, like ge'sir (to lay), absoudre (to absolve), oui¨r (to hear), oindre (to oil, to anoint), que'rir (to go for), etc. You can find them quite commonly if you read Middle Age literature. The general rule is: if a new verb has to be introduced into the language, then usually it will be a 1st groupe one, only this group still being productive. For ex: surfer (to surf), where, BTW, the "u" is usually pronounced like in English. There are of course defective verbs, like "pleuvoir" (to rain), "faillir" (to fail or to be very near to). Ancient verbs are often defective (ge'sir, oui¨r, choir=to fall), meaning that only some tenses and persons are known. For information, the Bescherelle (reference book for French conjugation) mentions no less than 82 templates. But most of them concern only very few verbs, or only one; and sometimes, the differences between two templates are very thin. If I may add a personal observation, in general, don't expect a Frenchman to master his own language's conjugations, especially the written forms. The confusion between the endings in "-er", "-ez", "-e'", "-e'e", "-e's", for example, is so to say the rule (all of them being pronounced the same way), except among orthograph maniacs. And last, some of the tenses still mentioned in French grammars are going quickly out of use: subjunctive imperfect, indicative passe' ante'rieur, conditional passe' 2nd form. Don't waste your time trying to learn them. And indicative passe' simple is used only in written French nowadays (in novels or history books, mainly). ===== Philippe Caquant "High thoughts must have high language." (Aristophanes, Frogs) _______________________________ Do you Yahoo!? Win 1 of 4,000 free domain names from Yahoo! Enter now.