|From:||Anthony M. Miles <theophilus88@...>|
|Date:||Saturday, February 15, 2003, 6:07|
Here's info on "Joan's language". The phonetic categories are for
convenience rather than absolute accuracy.
Labial Dental Palatal
Voiceless Stop p [p] t [t] ch [tS]
Voiced Stop b [b] d [d] j [dZ]
Nasal m [m] n [n] ny [J]
Voiceless Fricative f [f] s [s] sh
[S] kh [x]
Voiced Fricative v [v] z [z] zh
[Z] gh [g"]
Glide w [w] r [r]
y [j] h [h]
High i [i] u [u] i' [i:] u'
Mid e [e] o [o] e' [e:] o' [o:]
Low a [a] a' [a:]
p, b, m, f, v, w, t, d, n, ch, j, sh, k, and h are pronounced as in English.
s is pronounced as s in 'house' and z as s in 'houses'. r is rolled. ny is
pronounced as ny in 'canyon'. zh is pronounced as g in 'rouge'. ng is
pronounced as ng in 'king'. kh is pronounced as ch in 'loch'. gh corresponds
to kh as g to k.
Vowels have both long and short variants.
The form of the verb is C1V1C2C2V2N, where C2 is an infix inserted between
the two vowels of the verbal root. The role of the nasal N will be discussed
with the construction of the sentence; for the meantime, pronounce N as -n.
Voiceless consonants and nasals mark positive verbs, while voiced consonants
and glides mark negative verbs. The labial consonants are used for the
active mood. The dental consonants are used for the passive mood. The
palatal consonants are used for the obligatory mood. The velar consonants
are for the conditional mood.
The stops are used for the present tense. The fricatives are used for the
past tense. The nasals and glides are used for the future tense. Thus the
full verb declension of joa- [d_Zoa] 'write' is:
joppaN 'she write'
jobbaN 'she does not write'
joffaN 'she wrote'
jovvaN 'she did not write'
jommaN 'she will write'
jowwaN 'she will not write'
jottaN 'it is written'
joddaN 'it is not written'
jossaN 'it was written'
jozzaN 'it was not written'
jonnaN 'it will be written'
jorraN 'it will not be written'
jochchaN 'she must write', 'write!'
jojjaN 'she must not write', 'do not write!'
joshshaN 'she should have written'
jozhzhaN 'she should not have written'
jonynyaN 'she should write'
joyyaN 'she should not write'
jokkaN 'if/when she writes'
joggaN 'if/when she does not write'
jokhkhaN 'if/when she has written'
joghghaN 'if/when she has not written'
jongngaN 'if/when she will write'
johhaN 'if/when she will not write'
Participles differ from verbs only in the detail that they have the form
C1V1C2V2N rather than C1V1C2C2V2N. Participles are the source of simple
The full participial declension of joa- 'write' is:
jopaN 'she who writes', 'writer'
jobaN 'she who does not write'
jofaN 'she who wrote', 'former writer'
jovaN 'she who did not write'
jomaN 'she who will write', 'future writer'
jowaN 'she who will not write'
jotaN 'that which is written', 'writing'
jodaN 'that which is not written'
josaN 'that which was written', 'former writing, lore'
jozaN 'that which was not written'
jonaN 'that which will be written'
joraN 'that which will not be written'
jochaN 'she who must write'
jojaN 'she who must not write'
joshaN 'she who should have written'
jozhaN 'she who should not have written'
jonyaN 'she who should write'
joyaN 'she who should not write'
jokaN 'she who would write'
jogaN 'she who would not write'
jokhaN 'she who would have written'
joghaN 'she who would not have written'
jongaN 'she who will have written'
johaN 'she who will not have written'
"commune id vitium est, hic vivimus ambitiosa
"this is our common fault; here we live in ostentatious poverty"
Juvenal, Satires 3.182-3
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