A collectivizing affix in Jouevyaix Cherani
|From:||Elyse Grasso <emgrasso@...>|
|Date:||Sunday, March 2, 2003, 17:32|
(Orthographic note: @ is more or less schwa or the sound in hut, u is
the sound in hoot)
Most affixes in Trade-Speech (Jouevyaix) attach to the
quantifiers/auxiliary verbs that precede the primary lexical root term
in a phrase. The affixes that can apply to lexical roots mostly have
modal effects: negation, question, evidentiality markers, etc.
One exception is -t@ (-d@ after a voiced consonant).
When -t@ is attached to an adjectival or verbal root, it nominalizes it.
Red (is-red) Red +t@ (redness, the state of being red)
Travel Travel+t@ (the activity of traveling)
When it is attached to a countable noun, -t@ makes it abstract, generic,
or collective. English sentences like "The elephant (abstract) has a
trunk" or "Elephants have trunks" would translate into Trade Speech
using a noun+t@. However, a specific herd of elephants would also
commonly be referred to as elephant+t@, unless they were being counted
or specific individuals were otherwise being singled out in some way.
(Animals that usually live alone, like bears, would be less likely to
be referred to using -t@. Grapes and bananas would use -t@, apples,
Nouns in -t@ always take quantitative rather than numeric specifiers
(much rather than many).
They are on the ergative side of the accusative/ergative split, even
when the noun without -t@ takes the accusative.
There is a domestic animal called a kuliis. (Shaped like a hadrosaur,
culturally the equivalent of a very mellow camel, or a really huge
llama). So --
Examples (particles in parentheses are usually omitted).
kuliis ka gezh i hran
NOM kuliis at tree DURATIVE is-wild
The kuliis by the tree is wild.
i seshu (so) kuliist@ hran
DUR is-un-spotted (ERG) kuliis+COLL wild
Wild kuliist@ are solid-colored.
Sefirren e kel kuliis eon.
NOM Sefirren ACC five kuliis is-associated-with
Sefirren has 5 kuliis(es).
i zriha (so) kuliist@ on Sefirren
DUR is-splotched (ERG) kuliis+COLL ASSOC Sefirren
Sefirren's kuliista have splotches. (Like pinto horses or Holstein
kuliis ve soja Sefirren i xharr@
NOM kuliis most is-favored Sefirren DUR brave
Sefirren's favorite kuliis is brave.
nge kuliist@ on Sefirren ja dhov@ so zousht@
ABS kuliis+COLL ASSOC Sefirren PAST+HAB carry ERG tradegoods
Sefirren's kuliista carried trade-goods. (Usually, repeatedly, etc.)
kuliis ve soja Sefirren e zhe di dhova
NOM kuliis most is-favored Sefirren ACC COG/SENT PAST carry
Sefirren's favorite kuliis carried him (Sefirren). (to town yesterday)
COG/SENT cognitive/sentient 3rd person pronoun (singular)
I need to start keeping a pen and notepad beside my bed so that 2am
attacks of vocabulary will be less disruptive.