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Vaiysi grammar revised: sintax

From:Mangiat <mangiat@...>
Date:Friday, February 2, 2001, 18:24

Let's take a look at the syntactical system now:


Word order
Word order is quite fixed, though not rigid. It is usually SVO,
subject-verb-object, but, since cases and personal endings are always
expressed, it can be fairly changed.
The object (absolutive) can be moved to the beginning of a sentence to focus
it, and, especially in poetic compositions, the order can be modified into a
VSO. Noun and verb phrases are usually modifier-modified, i.e.
adjective-noun and adverb-verb, but we have already said that this feature
is not rigid.

The usual way of negating a sentence is to negate the verb using ize. This
adverb is generally used immediately before the verb:

Mil ize ozyezi kerteiy
we.ERG not eat.PST.3p orange.PL
We didn't eat the oranges.

Ize can be used also before nouns. In this case it generally negates the
following noun, not the whole phrase. For exemple:

Mil ozyezi ize kerteiy, ozyezi mureiy.
we.ERG eat.PST.3p not orange.PL, eat.PST.3p apple.PL
We didn't eat the oranges, we ate apples.

In this sentence we don't deny the fact that we have eaten, but the fact
that we have eaten oranges.
Another exemple:

Vel loudo ize vesuni fyache!
me.ERG love.3s not honey.GEN bread
I don't like bread with honey!

Infinitive constructions
Vaiysi does not have an infinitive mood. Infinitive phrases can be replaced
using the conjunction vye, which can be roughly translated with that. I want
to go downtown thus becomes I want that I go downtown.

Vel ize mailo vye yegar.
I.ERG not want.3p that go.2s
I don't want you to go.

Omira feizarkiyi vye egiye sile burmouved.
Omira say.AP.PST.3s that go.POST.3s sky cloudy.ALL
Omira said he'd ascend to the cloudy sky.

Notice in the latest exemple the use of the antipassive, which underlines
the identity of subject within the first and the second sentence.

Verbal nouns, handled as infinitives in many languages and rendered in
English by the -ing form, are realized in Vaiysi with the -oma suffix.

Velyanoma omma iy vyedi harpyea.
read.VN old and great
Reading is an old and great art.