Xinkutlan 2- Some Grammar
|From:||Geoff Horswood <geoffhorswood@...>|
|Date:||Thursday, November 18, 2004, 9:51|
Nothing especially unusual in the phonology, so here's some grammar:
Verbs end in -en in the infinitive, which is also used as a gerund.
The ending modifies with tense as follows:
Tense Imperfect Perfect +Continuous +Habitual
Present -ei -ai -a -u
Immediate Past -its -ats -i -u
Recent Past -ir -ur -i -u
Distant Past -as -es -a -u
Legendary Past -ik -ek -i -u
Immediate Future -el -ul -a -o
Near Future -im -om -a -o
Far Future -ep -up -a -o
-ix- before all of these endings forms the passive.
Immediate past is used for anything from "just now" to "right this morning"
Recent past takes in "this week" to "this month"
Distant past goes all the way back to "in my eary years" or "in my father's
Legendary past is anything beyond living memory, or anything in living
memory but of doubtful veracity.
Immediate future is "today"
Near future goes forward to "this week"
Anything beyond a week's distant, or anything speculative, no matter what
the time frame, is far future.
imen "to walk"
imei walk (present imperfect)
imeia walking (present continuous)
imeiu in the habit of walking
imeku had the habit of walking (a *long* time ago)
tepen "to dwell"
tepixatsi was being dwelt (would usually take a prefix for "in" or "on"
etc) immediate past continuous
PRONOUNS & pronounal prefixes
Letters in brackets () are added before an initial vowel
1 sing kir an-
2 sing inf ut u(s)-
2 sing close hon utu usal-
2 sing high hon util usin-
2 sing sacred hon uatu ua(s)-
2 sing royal hon utlama tua(r)-
3 sing inanimate ita i(t)-
3 sing animate ima im-
3 sing hon imuc ir-
1 pl inclusive rei en-
1 pl exclusive tei ein-
2 pl inf asut o(c)-
2 pl close hon asutu ocal-
2 pl high hon asutl ocin-
2 pl sacred hon asuati oi(c)-
2 pl royal hon utlama tua(r)-
3 pl inanimate ite il-
3 pl animate ika in-
3 pl hon iri irun-
The "close honorific" form is used for people like parents and good friends
of higher status.
The "high honorific" form denotes scribes, village elders, respected people
for whom the close honorific is inappropriate.
The "sacred honorific" is used for shaman-priests, when addressing spirits
and the like.
Finally, the royal honorific is used to address royalty. This includes the
royal family and some gods.
akaren "to see"
anakarei I see
tuarakarats petetl you, o king, have seen (just now)
irakarats petetl the king, he has seen (just now)*
*Permissible, but unusual. Would emphasise "the king". Just "akarats
petetl" would normally be sufficient.
More to follow!