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Xinkutlan 2- Some Grammar

From:Geoff Horswood <geoffhorswood@...>
Date:Thursday, November 18, 2004, 9:51
Nothing especially unusual in the phonology, so here's some grammar:

Verbs end in -en in the infinitive, which is also used as a gerund.

The ending modifies with tense as follows:

Tense             Imperfect  Perfect   +Continuous  +Habitual
Present           -ei        -ai       -a           -u
Immediate Past    -its       -ats      -i           -u
Recent Past       -ir        -ur       -i           -u
Distant Past      -as        -es       -a           -u
Legendary Past    -ik        -ek       -i           -u
Immediate Future  -el        -ul       -a           -o
Near Future       -im        -om       -a           -o
Far Future        -ep        -up       -a           -o

-ix- before all of these endings forms the passive.

Immediate past is used for anything from "just now" to "right this morning"
Recent past takes in "this week" to "this month"
Distant past goes all the way back to "in my eary years" or "in my father's
Legendary past is anything beyond living memory, or anything in living
memory but of doubtful veracity.
Immediate future is "today"
Near future goes forward to "this week"
Anything beyond a week's distant, or anything speculative, no matter what
the time frame, is far future.

imen "to walk"
imei    walk (present imperfect)
imeia   walking (present continuous)
imeiu   in the habit of walking

imeku   had the habit of walking (a *long* time ago)

tepen "to dwell"
tepixatsi  was being dwelt (would usually take a prefix for "in" or "on"
etc) immediate past continuous

PRONOUNS & pronounal prefixes

Letters in brackets () are added before an initial vowel

                    Pronoun  Prefix
1 sing              kir      an-
2 sing inf          ut       u(s)-
2 sing close hon    utu      usal-
2 sing high hon     util     usin-
2 sing sacred hon   uatu     ua(s)-
2 sing royal hon    utlama   tua(r)-
3 sing inanimate    ita      i(t)-
3 sing animate      ima      im-
3 sing hon          imuc     ir-
1 pl inclusive      rei      en-
1 pl exclusive      tei      ein-
2 pl inf            asut     o(c)-
2 pl close hon      asutu    ocal-
2 pl high hon       asutl    ocin-
2 pl sacred hon     asuati   oi(c)-
2 pl royal hon      utlama   tua(r)-
3 pl inanimate      ite      il-
3 pl animate        ika      in-
3 pl hon            iri      irun-

The "close honorific" form is used for people like parents and good friends
of higher status.
The "high honorific" form denotes scribes, village elders, respected people
for whom the close honorific is inappropriate.
The "sacred honorific" is used for shaman-priests, when addressing spirits
and the like.
Finally, the royal honorific is used to address royalty.  This includes the
royal family and some gods.

akaren "to see"
anakarei              I see
tuarakarats petetl    you, o king, have seen (just now)
irakarats petetl      the king, he has seen (just now)*

*Permissible, but unusual.  Would emphasise "the king".  Just "akarats
petetl" would normally be sufficient.

More to follow!