Gweinic Language Family (GLF) Cases and Numbers
|From:||Anthony M. Miles <theophilus88@...>|
|Date:||Sunday, June 4, 2000, 13:47|
GLF Cases and Numbers
Gweinic originally had six cases: the nominative (also used as vocative),
genitive (possessive and partitive), dative, locative,
accusative, and instrumental. The nominative could also be used for
the vocative. The genitive indicated both possessive and partitive,
and was used for the direct object of the animate and inanimate present
active participles. The dative was used for the indirect object. The
locative was used for stationary positions. The accusative
was used for the direct object of active non-participial forms of
the verb. The instrumental was used for the direct object of the
animate and inanimate passive non-participial forms of the verb.
Prepositions of motion towards something governed the accusative case.
Prepositions of motion away from something governed the genitive case.
Prepositions of stationary position governed the locative or dative case.
The prepositions li [li] 'by means of', was the sole prepostion governing
the instrumental case.
Changes in EL (NGDLAI>NGDLA)
EL lost the instrumental case in favor of the genitive case. [li] therefore
came to govern the genitive case and the construction
li+genitive replaced the instrumental case as the form for the direct
object of the animate and inanimate passive non-participial forms of the
Changes in CL(NGDLA>NGD(L)A)
The locative case became very rare (a similar example is the 'prepositional'
case in Russian) outside adverbial constructions, and most of its
prepositions were stolen by the dative case. The [li]+genitive as the form
for the direct object of the animate and inanimate passive non-participial
forms of the verb was dropped in favor of a plain genitive. Since perfect
passive participles declined, a genitive absolute emerged.
Changes in Woeuenic (NGDLA>NGLA)
Unlike CL, the locative case overwhelmed the dative. No genitive absolute
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