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Tj'a-ts'a~n reduplication system

From:Christophe Grandsire <christophe.grandsire@...>
Date:Monday, February 22, 1999, 13:02
        As Pablo Flores asked me for an explanation of the reduplication system in
Tj'a-ts'a~n, here it is:

        Reduplication is a process used with roots where they are _totally_
reduplicated (even when they are polysyllabic, which is rare). It is also
used with the personnal affixes as I explain it below. It has a general
meaning of completeness, which is interpreted differently depending on the
nature of the word. So:

- when the word is a substantive (noun, attributive or genitive
-attributives and genitives are really other kinds of words, not cases of
nouns-), reduplication has a meaning of complete group (each, every). For

ga-so-roj.roj: humanity (all the groups of humans), whereas: ga-so-roj: a
group of humans.

ma-g-ur.ur: all the stars in the sky, whereas: ma-g-ur: a star.

- when the word is an adjective, reduplication means superlative (very,
absolutely, quite). BTW, you make the comparative of an adjective only
adding a complement in the partitive case, and you make the relative
superlative only adding a complement in the partitive case to the
reduplicated form of the adjective. For instance:

k'a-n-pse-ni ga-n-roj: a tall man, but: k'a-n-pse.pse-ni ga-n-roj: a very
tall man, and ga-so-roj.roj-bu k'a-n-pse.pse-ni ga-n-roj: the tallest man
in ("between") humanity.

NOTE: sorry for the examples but I still don't have enough roots to make
sensible sentences.

- when the word is a verb, reduplication is used to show the perfective
aspect ("result"). I know that natlangs that use reduplication for aspect
in verbs use it generally to mean progressive, but here the meaning of
completeness (which goes very well with reduplication when I think of it)
can be compatible only with perfect. Well, I don't have my notes here, and
can't figure out an example of its use here, but I think you will have
understood it.

- it is also used with another kind of words that is particles, but as I
still can't figure out what are particles for, I can't explain it more.

        With pronouns, reduplication is a little bit different as they are affixes
and not roots. But the meaning comes also from the basic meaning of
completeness, so reduplication here has the meaning of completives (we all,
you all, ...). Here is how it works:

- the normal personnal affixes are:
        1st person:     singular or plural: ter
                        strictly inclusive (me and you and nobody else): te-wir
                        inclusive (me and you and somebody else): te-wi-p
                        exclusive: te-p

        2nd person:     singular or plural: wir

        3rd person:     new information: p'ar
                        we've just talked of it: pej
                        we talked of it before: per
                        we're about to talk of it: pi

        4th person (one): no affix.

- the reduplicated forms are:
        1st person:     ter-ter or te-ter: we all (inclusive or exclusive)

        2nd person:     wir-wir or wi-wir: you all

        3rd person:     new information: p'ar-p'ar or p'a-p'ar    |
                        we've just talked of it: pej-pej or pe-pej | them all
                        we talked of it before: per-per or pe-per         |
                        we're about to talk of it: pi-pi                  |

You can use either of the two forms as you want, depending on your sound

        Well, that's all for the reduplication system. I'm going to send a post
about the couting system in Tj'a-ts'a~n. I'll try to send it today or


                                                        Christophe Grandsire
                                                |Sela Jemufan Atlinan C.G.

"Reality is just another point of view."

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