Theiling Online    Sitemap    Conlang Mailing List HQ   

Re: Examples #5: Translate the One Ring poem

From:Cian Ross <cian@...>
Date:Sunday, January 30, 2005, 21:15
On Wednesday 26 January 2005 03:49 pm, Arthaey Angosii wrote:
> Emaelivpeith Roger Mills: > > It just occurred to me-- I hope someone is archiving all these > > translations, and perhaps can put them up on a website somewhere???? > > As part of my translation exercise page that I'm making, I'm putting > up links to conlang translations of these texts. This includes all the > One Ring translations, which can be found under the Texts section of > .
I'm going to step into the fray again with a very early sketch of an attempt at a polysynthetic language based in IE root stock with affixes created as necessary. (This is my first attempt at a polysynthetic language--I thought I had enough to do without inventing a new root stock. :)) Incorporation is at the level, at least as I currently understand it, of languages such as Nahuatl or Inuktitut. Long vowels are marked with a following ':' (the phonology is currently roughly the union of classical Latin and Greek as I was taught in class, per the selection of the root stock). The translation is perhaps the beginning of defining a form composed of two sentence-words per line, a main "clause" followed by a subordinate "clause." Comments are of course always most welcome and requested--particularly if I'm all wet about polysynthetic languages. RegiyarEldaiso:annultriadedakama kailsubesangoso DomnuiyarNaugriso:annulseptadedakama asangaroikolithuiyintroesangoso Andazebrotiannulnovidedakama asangdeinmoiruthanaso Domnutembreso:pseannulmiadedakama ipsengaredratembreso:episedengo Mordorarktho:nso:introeskama ktho:nso:epikeisthatembriso:ntio Toturegannulmiaoikakwe totuheureannulmiaoikakwe Totuferannulmiaoikakwe totutembremenso:introdeinoika Mordorarktho:nso:introeskama ktho:nso:epikeisthatembreso:ntio. Reg i yar Elda i so: annul tria deda ka ma King PL CONTROL Elf PL DEF ring three gave 3-SG GOVERN kail sub es angos o sky under be 4-PL SUBORD Domnu i yar Naugr i so: annul septa deda ka ma Lord PL CONTROL Dwarf PL DEF ring seven gave 3-SG GOVERN asang ar oiko lithu i yintro es angos o they-4th CONTROL house stone PL within be 4-PL SUBORD Andaze brot i annul novi deda ka ma Man mortal PL ring nine gave 3-PL GOVERN asang dein moiru than as o they-4th bind fate death ERG-SG SUBORD Domnu tembre so: pse annul mia deda ka ma Lord dark DEF SELF ring one gave 3-SG GOVERN ipseng ar edra tembre so: epi sede ng o self-4-SG CONTROL throne dark DEF upon sit 4-SG SUBORD Mordor ar ktho:n so: intro es ka ma Mordor CONTROL land DEF within be 3-SG GOVERN ktho:n so: epi keistha tembre so: nti o land DEF upon lie shadow DEF 3-PL SUBORD Totu reg annul mia oi ka kwe all rule ring one OPT 3-SG and Totu heure annul mia oi ka kwe all find ring one OPT 3-SG and Totu fer annul mia oi ka kwe all bring ring one OPT 3-SG and Totu tembre men so: intro dein oi ka All dark -ness DEF within bind OPT 3-SG Mordor ar ktho:n so: intro es ka ma Mordor CONTROL land DEF within be 3-SG GOVERN ktho:n so: epi keistha tembre so: nti o land DEF upon lie shadow DEF 3-PL SUBORD 3-SG 3rd-person singular marker 3-PL 3rd-person plural marker 4-SG 4th-person singular marker 4-PL 4th-person plural marker CONTROL preceding item controls (owns, holds, possesses, characterizes, etc.) following item DEF definiteness marker ERG-SG ergative (?) singular marker, used with non-pronominal subjects of transitive verbs GOVERN clause governs one or more subordinate clauses OPT optative-mood marker PL plural marker SELF reflexivity marker SUBORD clause is subordinate self-4-SG reflexive 4th-person singular pronoun they-4th ordinary (non-reflexive) 4th-person plural pronoun Lexicon conventions: roots and prefixes (if any) are listed with a trailing dash, postfixes with a leading dash. The order in word-sentences is OVS unless marked to the contrary (by special terminator affixes at the end to mark the change of order). QOVS (Q = second object) for ditransitives and datives. The subject may be implied by the terminator. Ergative case marking. Aspect-centered verb system with incorporated adverbs of time instead of explicit tenses. The full (unmarked) sequence is: second-object (Q) - direct-object (O) - verb (V) - subject (S) - terminator - enclitics Only a stem (S or V) is required. A terminator is required except for the 2nd singular direct imperative, which has an optional terminator -e. Direct imperatives are V, OV, or QOV. Any of the above can be modified by suffixes (and preceding infixes, for the terminator). For all but the terminator, modifying elements may be suffixed: for the verb, these function as adverbs, for the rest, as adjectives. The negation element, -ne:(n), is treated like any modifying element. The second object, if present, is regularly suffixed with -ei (after all other modifiers). It either has a dative sense or gives the last argument of the verb (e.g., the reference to the entity being named, in verbs of naming: the name itself is the first object). The verb reduplicates its initial consonant (sometimes consonant cluster, if applicable) around an augment infix -e- to mark complete aspect. Verb stems in Ce- (with a single initial consonant C) sometimes drop the original -e-, then sometimes forming an epithentic -a-. Examples: flu:- flow feflu:- flowed fer- bring, carry, bear fefr(a)- brought, carried, bore Verb stems that begin with a vowel other than e- prefix e- or e:- as an augment: e- is prefixed to the short front vowel i- and e:- to all other vowels except i:-, which is always irregular. Examples: ir(a)- go eir(a)- went ag- drive e:ag- drove Verb stems in e- variously augment to ei- or e:a-, or (rarely) are irregular or suppletive. Verb stems in i:- are always irregular or suppletive. Examples: es- be e:as- was i:d(a)- know oid(a)- knew Incomplete aspect is unmarked. All other tense and time markings are made with adverbs following the verb, or following the subject if the verb is omitted (giving a zero copula). Aspect is normally not marked on zero copulas. The verb 'be' is available if desired for explicit marking. An epithentic -a- regularly separates the terminator from a stem that ends in a consonant if the juxtaposition of the consonants would force a sound change otherwise. Stress accent works like in Latin, except that an inflectional affix inside a word cannot be accented and thus "pushes" the stress accent closer to the end of the word. If several affixes occur at the end of the word, the accent is thus pushed to the last syllable (even if it is an affix). Also the accent on a proper noun tends to be placed as if the noun were in isolation. Proper nouns tend to retain their accents, so a word that contains proper nouns may have multiple stress accents: one for each proper noun plus possibly one regular accent if the last proper nown is far enoug away from the end of the word. NOTE: enclitics (e.g., -kwe) can never cause the accent to move, even if the same sequences of sounds in any other context would move the accent. Glottal stops (except for vowels at the start of words) and/or hiatus are avoided. Where is is otherwise impossible to avoid placing the same vowel twice in contact, -y- is inserted between front vowels and -w- between back vowels. Basic terminators (1st system): -m 1st sg. -t 2nd sg. -ka(n) 3rd sg. -ng 4th sg. -mu 1st dual -tu 2nd dual -knu 3rd dual -ngu 4th dual -mos 1st pl. -vos 2nd pl. -nti 3rd pl. -ngos 4th pl. -(e) direct imper. sg. -eu direct imper. dual -(e)i direct imper. pl. -s explicit-subject ergative sg. -su explicit-subject ergative dual -sen explicit-subject ergative pl. The last three are used when the subject of the verb is explicit (rather than only marked in the terminator) and the subject is ergative. An explicit absolutive subject takes a 1st-4th person ending (usually a 3rd). A full set of personal pronouns is made by prefixing as- to the 1st-4th person endings of the 1st system, with epithentic -a- then added where required by context, e.g., asmam = "It is I." (The as- is probably derived via a vowel-grade change from es- = "be", or possibly vice versa.) The 2nd terminator system marks the frame order being changed to SQOV, to emphasize the subject: -v 1st sg. -th 2nd sg. -kh 3rd sg. -r 4th sg. -vu 1st dual -thu 2nd dual -khu 3rd dual -ru 4th dual -vos 1st pl. -fos 2nd pl. -ntha 3rd pl. -ros 4th pl. -he direct imper. sg. -heu direct imper. dual -hei direct imper. pl. -kh explicit-subject ergative sg. -hu explicit-subject ergative dual -hen explicit-subject ergative pl. The subject in this frame is regularly postfixed with -gar. Pre-terminator infixes: -oi- optative mood (wishes, preferred results) -ia- irrealis mood (contrary-to-fact conditions) -ua- expective mood (something the speaker expects or predicts); can have a simple-future sense with the incomplete aspect and a future-perfect sense with the complete aspect A maximum of one prefix may be used. The indicative and imperative moods are unmarked here. These infixes follow Terminator postfixes: -o subordinate clause -ma main clause that governs a following subordinate clause -an question marker; often also prefixed to the word More than one postfix may be used, but must occur in the order given above. Enclitics (always follow the postfixes): -kwe "and" -aut "or" (exclusive) -wel "or" (inclusive, and/or) The coordinates are suffixed to each of the words put in parallel except for the last word. -osed "but" (contains -o, as this is necessarily a subordinate clause) -onar clause-word of "natural" result subordinate to the preceding word -ne:(n) emphatic negation of the verb (or head stem if there is no verb); moved to the end of the word for contrast; may be used with an infixed -ne: for an even more emphatic negation of the element modified by the infix; -ne:s before -e- or -e:- -(i)stua "also", "as well", "either" Other common suffixes, added to roots as desired: The actual-gender postfixes retain -s before a following vowel: -la(s) actual gender: feminine -le(s) actual gender: masculine -lud actual gender: neuter/unknown -li(s) actual gender: common -z(e) X-z(e) = "(one of) those who X", used only of persons -men X-men = "something that X", not used of persons -so:(n) definiteness -(y)ar construct-ish relation: the marked item owns or possesses or controls the item suffixed after -(y)ar -u,-ru dualness (-ru after -u) -i,-ri pluralness (-ri after -i) Notes: 1. Some plurals are formed by "breaking" the vowel of the stem, e.g,. mu:s (= "mouse"), mu:su (= "two mice"), mi:as (= "more than two mice"). This is confined to stems with simple long vowels. 2. Duality and plurality are normally not marked by the above when the stem is modified by a numeral. Examples: Andamos. We walk-like-humans. Andazem. I am one of those who walk like humans. / I am human. / I am a person. Serut. It is blue. Serukailsot. The sky is blue. Serukailsoherit. The sky is (will be) blue (i.e. cloudless) tomorrow. Nimbiso:flafle:aso:t. The wind blows the clouds. Serune:kailso:tonar nimbiso:fla:fle:aso:t. The wind blows the clouds so that the sky is not blue/clear. [Subordinate clauses normally precede the main clause.] Nimbiso:fla:fle:aso:tma serune:kailso:tonar. [The main clause must be marked with the enclitic -ma if it comes first.] I:damma imbreherito. Imbreherito I:dam. I know that there will be rain tomorrow. Imbrecrasto oidam. I knew that there would be rain yesterday. I knew that there was rain yesterday. Imbreye:ascrasto oidam. I knew that there was rain yesterday. Imbreye:asto oidam. I knew that there was rain. Imbreye:astokwe tompoe:asto oidam. I knew that there was rain and that there was thunder. Imbreuatkwe tompouat. Rain and thunder are expected. [or are to be expected] Astoidakano wewideng. He [4th person] knew that he [3rd person] saw you. Gegu:sne:Deivasistua. Dave didn't like it, either. [An unspecified direct object is implied here by the use of the ergative marking with the subject, Deiv = ("Dave").] Roots: as- personal pronoun stem (add to it a 1st-4th person ending from the 1st terminator system) ag- drive anda- walk (on two legs, like a human) andaz(e)- human (that which walks on two legs) annul- ring brot- mortal cras- yesterday da- give [1st object is the thing given, 2nd object is the recipient] dein- bind domnu- lord, lady edra- throne -epi upon es- be e:as- was fer- bring, carry, bear fla:- blow fle:a- wind flu:- flow flu:men- river, stream, brook, creek gu:s- like, enjoy heri- tomorrow heure- find, discover i:d(a)- know imbre- rain ir(a)- go [eir(a)- = went] -intro within -(i)pse self [note: 1st-system person suffix may be added] kail- sky keistha- lie, be placed on ktho:n- land, territory lithu- stone, rock lokw- talk, speak, say Lokwandaze People-Talk [name of the language] mia- one moiru- fate nimb- cloud novi- nine oid(a)- knew oiko- house, hall reg- king, queen, rule sede- sit -sept seven seru- blue, sky-blue, cloudless -sub under tembr(e)- dark, shadow(ed) than- die, death tompo- thunder [onomatopoeic] totu- all, every (one) -tria three wide- see CKR