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Aredos Grammar II - Nouns (long-ish)

From:Dan Jones <feuchard@...>
Date:Wednesday, July 18, 2001, 22:00
In the last post I promised nominal morphology and nominal morphology you
shall get! I was intending on covering nominal syntax at the same time but
the list of paradigms looks intimidating enough as it is. Any thoughts?

Aredos distinguishes nine cases in the noun: nominative, vocative,
accusative, genitive, dative, ablative, locative and instrumental. Early
Aredos distinguished three numbers: singular, dual and plural, although in
Classical Aredos the dual number fell into disuse. All nouns are one of
three genders- masculine, feminine or neuter.

Declension I - a-stems
The a-stems are mainly feminine, although they do include a few masculines.
Example given: acua "water"

            Singular:       Dual               Plural
nom    acua              acuáe             acuae
voc     acua              acuáe             acuae
acc     acuam            acuáe            acuans
gen     acuás             acuáus          acuarom
dat      acuae            acuámó         acuávos
abl      acuá              acuó              acuáes  (1)
loc     acuáe             acuáus           acuámís
inst     acuám            acuámó         acuáro

(1) In the singular and dual alternative forms such as acuad and acuud are
found, especially in early literature.

Declension II - o-stems
O-stem nouns are either masculine or neuter, and form the vast majority of
nouns in Aredos. Examples given: agros "field" and celnom "blanket".

Masculine nouns
            Singular:        Dual             Plural
nom    agros              agró              agrí
voc     agre                agró             agrí
acc     agrom             agró              agrons
gen     agrosio            agrús            agrorom
dat      agrí                 agróvio         agrís
abl      agró                agrú              agrovios
loc     agro                 agrús            agromís
inst     agrome            agróvio         agroro

Neuter nouns
            Singular:        Dual             Plural
nom    celnom            celnó            celná
voc     celnom            celnó            celná
acc      celnom            celnó           celnons
gen      celnosio          celnús           celniom
dat      celní                celnóvio        celnís
abl      celnó               celnú             celnovios
loc      celno               celnús           celnomís
inst      celnome          celnóvio        celnoro

Declension III - athematic stems (i.e. everything else)

R-stems generally compromise nouns relating to family members, although
there are some exceptions. There are only twelve r-stem nouns known in
Aredos, so the category is not incredibly difficult to learn (they are
presented below). Example given: páter "father"

            Singular:        Dual             Plural
nom    páter              pátró              pátrés
voc     páter              pátró             pátrés
acc     pátrem           pátró              pátrens
gen     pátres             patrús            pátrom
dat      pátrí               pátróvio         pátrís
abl      pátrí               pátrú              pátrevios
loc      pátre               pátrús            pátremís
inst     pátreme           pátróvio         pátrero

Aredos's thirteen r-stem nouns [with etymologies]

aher "day", oblique stem acr-  [*agher]
cicer "pea", oblique stem cicr-[*k'ik'er]
dáever "brother in law", oblique stem dáiur- [*da:iwer]
fráter "brother", oblique stem frátr- [*bhra:ter]
glóver "sister in law", oblique stem glúr- [*g'lo:wer]
heror "fist", oblique stem hestr- [*g'hesor "hand"]
ienater "sister, comrade", oblique stem ientr-  [*yen@ter "sister in law"]
máter "mother", oblique stem mátr- [*ma:ter]
ner "man", oblique stem anr- [*ner]
néter "snake", oblique stem nétr- [*ne:ter]
páter "father", oblique stem pátr- [*pa:ter]
sueror "sister", oblique stem suestr- [*swesor]
zugáter "daughter", oblique stem zugátr- [*dhuga:ter]

I-stems are not incredibly frequent, although there are a few about. They
can be of any gender, although most commonly neuter. Example given: aguris

            Singular:        Dual             Plural
nom    aguris              agurió          agurés
voc     aguris              agurió          agurés
acc     agurem            agurió          agurens
gen     aguris              aguriús         aguriom
dat      agurí               agurívio        agurís
abl      aguré               aguriú          agurivos
loc      agure               aguriús         aguremís
inst     agureme           agurívio        aguriro

N-stems are odd because the eponymous n only occurs in the oblique cases.
They can be of any gender, although the majority of masculine n-stems are
personal names such as Arió, from PIE *aryo:n, "noble one". Example given:
zrodó "colour"

            Singular:           Dual             Plural
nom      zrodó              zrodono        zrodonés
voc       zrodó              zrodono        zrodonés
acc       zrodonem        zrodono        zrodons, zrodonens
gen       zrodones         zrodonús       zrodon, zrodonom
dat        zrodoní           zrodonóvio    zrodonís
abl        zrodoní           zrodonú         zrodonevios
loc        zrodone          zrodonús        zrodonemís
inst        zrodoneme     zrodonevio     zrodonso

U-stems are mainly feminine, and form a very small section of Aredos
vocabulary. Example given dacrus "teardrop"

           Singular:         Dual             Plural
nom    dacrus            dacrú            dacrues
voc      dacrus           dacrú            dacruess
acc     dacrum           dacrú            dacruns
gen     dacruis            dacrús           dacrom
dat      dacruí             dacrúvio        dacruís
abl      dacrú              dacrú            dacruvis
loc      dacrui             dacrús           dacrumís
inst      dacrume         dacrúvio        dacroro

Consonant stems can be divided into three types, distinguished by the final
cononant's place of articulation, either labial, dental or velar. In the
nominative singular they end in -ps, -(long vowel)s and -cs respectively.
These endings are derived from PIE athematic stems which end in consonants-
which reappear in their proper form in the oblique cases. For example, PIE
*bhrug "throat" gives nominative singular frucs, but accusative singular
frugem. Examples given: eneps "navel",  nepós "nephew, grandson" and frucs

Labial consonant stems
            Singular:          Dual            Plural
nom      eneps              enevó          enevés
voc       eneps              enevó          enevés
acc       enevem            enevó         enevans
gen       enevis              enevós        enevom
dat        eneví               enebio         enevís
abl        enevé              enevú          enebos
loc        eneve              eneviús         enevemís
inst       eneme          enebio         enepso

Dental consonant stems
            Singular:          Dual             Plural
nom      nepós              nepotó         nepotés
voc       nepós              nepotó         nepotés
acc       nepotem          nepotó         nepotans
gen       nepotis             nepotós       nepotem
dat        nepotí              nepóvio       nepotís
abl        nepoté             nepotú         nepóvos
loc        nepote             nepotiús       nepómís
inst       nepóme            nepóvio       nepóso

Velar consonant stems
            Singular:          Dual          Plural
nom      frucs              frugó          frugés
voc       frucs              frugó          frugés
acc       frugem            frugó         frugans
gen       frugis              frugós        frugom
dat        frugí               fruhio         frugís
abl        frugé              frugú          fruhos
loc        fruge              frugiús        frugnís
inst       frugne             fruhio         frucso

Sigmatic stems
Sigmatic stems are those which ended in *s in PIE, such as *lus "louse".
These decline as normal consonantal stems, but the final -s changes to -r-
between vowels, so nominative lus but accusative lurem. Example given lus

            Singular:       Dual        Plural
nom      lus               luró          lurés
voc       lus               luró          lurés
acc       lurem           luró          lurans
gen       luris             lurós         lurom
dat        lurí              luspio        lurís
abl        luré              lurú           luspos
loc        lure              luriús         lusmís
inst       lusme           luspio         lusso


La plus belle fois qu'on m'a dit
          "je t'aime"
                   c'était un mec
                             qui me l'a dit...
Francis Lalane