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Re: A bit of Varai

From:Jim Henry <jimhenry@...>
Date:Wednesday, September 1, 2004, 15:42
Afian <yann_kiraly@...> wrote:

>2. Unconjugated verbs >Verbs aren't conjugated for simplicity (and since I see no reason why they >should be).
How are you planning to express the various nuances that other languages use verb inflections for? There are several possibilities, most obviously adverbs and adverbial particles, or auxiliary verbs. But you can also show some of the distinctions other languages use mood, aspect, and tense inflection for using distinctive prepositions or postpositions, or case inflections. (E.g., see Jeffrey Henning's recent post about Minhyan, specifically the bit about the temporal case.) In gjax-zym-byn I have very little verb inflection; verbs take four endings to distinguish stative, active, reflexive and reciprocal. I use auxiliary verbs for some things other languages use verb mood and aspect inflection for, but most tense, aspect and mood distinctions are made with adverbial particles or distinctive postpositions on the subject and/or object. (In some cases the postpositions carry the entire weight of the sentence and no verb is needed at all; an "adverbial" particle might in such sentences follow a posposition.) lju-txaj-zox pq tu-i. read-OPP-V.ACT 3P AGENT-at He's writing. lju-txaj-zox mje pq tu-i. read-OPP-V.ACT past 3P AGENT-at He was writing. lju-txaj-zox pq tu-o. read-OPP-V.ACT 1P AGENT-to He begins to write. The last could also be expressed with an auxiliary verb, giqn-zox lju-txaj-zox pq tu-i. begin-V.ACT read-OPP-V.ACT 3P AGENT-at Or the "begin" morpheme could be compouned into the verb. lju-txaj-giqn-zox pq tu-i. read-OPP-begin-V.ACT 3P AGENT-at OPP = opposite (one of two opposite-deriving suffixes in gzb; {txaj} derives a complement in a pair of relationship words or verbs, while {cox} is more like the common use of Esperanto "mal-" for deriving opposite adjectives/adverbs.) [I've figured out my mailer is automatically setting the Reply-to field even if I try to set it to null. Please check whether you are replying to me or the list.] - Jim Henry