Theiling Online    Sitemap    Conlang Mailing List HQ   

I'm new!

From:James O'Connell <jamestomas2@...>
Date:Friday, October 20, 2000, 15:45
I am james/jamestomas/lordmanwe/manwe/kingconnel but I suggest you call be
James :)
I have the beginning of a scetchy grammar for my language here.
I would appreciate any help or advice.
N.B. still VERY sketchy - verb constructions still lack mood for example,
intraclausal word-order not yet done etc.

But anyway, here you
Haven't named it - so I suppose it will have to be language X :)
Another note, there are a lot of tables in this message which have collaped
so they are rather hard to study but you can work out how many columns there
should be.


Verb Strucure
Noun Inflections
-----Adjectival Endings
-----Intransitive Word Order
-----Transative Word Order
-----Additional Cases
-----Subordinate Clauses
Parsed Examples
Irregular Verbs
-----acár - to be
-----kúnvan - to have



                  Labial Labial Dental Dental Alveolar Alveolar Palatal
Velar Uvular Glottal
Plosive         p, b -  - t, d  -   k, g - -
Fricative     mf f  - c, s  s   ch - h
Affricate         - -  - -  -   - - -
Aproximant v -  - r, l  y   - - -
Nasal  m -  - n  ny   ñ - -

p  = English parent
b  = English basement
mf  = English m and f prounounced together
v  = English vase
m  = English mother
f = English father
t = English taste
d = English daze
c = English center
r = English race (rolled)
l = English lame
n = English name (tends to form double n before a long vowel)
s = English facial
s  = Englsih center (only at the end of a word)
y = English yellow
ny = Spanish señor
k = English kill
g = English game
ch = German ich
ñ = English sing
h = English hate


a - man
á - father
e - fen
é - fame
i - fish
í - mean
o - moan
ó - or
u - foot
ú - shoe
ae - fine
au - found


Morphological Ergativity hence:

Core Cases:
    1st/2nd pronoun 3rd pronoun nouns
High Animation: Agent  Nominative  Ergative Ergative
   Subject ints. Nominative  Nominative Absolutive
Low Animation: Patient  Accusative  Accusative Absolutive


    1st/2nd pronoun 3rd pronoun nouns
High Animation: Agent  -   see pronouns  in
   Subject ints. -   -  -
Low Animation: Patient  see acc. pronouns see pronouns -



  Nom.  Acc.  Gen.
1st Sing. ni  í  í
1st Pl.  as   an  an
2nd Sing. is   ca  ca
2nd Pl.  tun   can  can
3rd Sing.m mala   man  man
f  alau  manau  manau
n  alan  malan  malan
3rd Pl.  malé   fó  fó

  Dat.  Abl.
1st Sing. tá  tá
1st Pl.  anná  anná
2nd Sing. cá  cá
2nd Pl.  canná  canná
3rd Sing.m ma  ma
f  mau  mau
n  alma  alma
3rd Pl.  fón  fón

Note: except he/she/it, if the subject of a sentence is a pronoun it can
usually be left out, as the meaning is clear from the verb ending.



example verb: sannár (nár verb) - to win


  Present  Imperfect Perfect  Pluperfect Future
1st Sing. sannári  asannári * sanná  - asannári + sanné
1st Pl.  sannára  asannára * sanná  - asannára + sanné
2nd Sing. sannáris asannáris * sanná  - asannáris + sanné
2nd Pl.  sannárican asannárican * sanná  - asannárican + sanné
3rd Sing.  sannáram asannáram * sanná  - asannáram + sanné
3rd Pl.  sannáraf asannáraf * sanná  - asannáraf + sanné

* = part of the verb "to be" which fits that person and number (present)
- = part of the verb "to be" which fits that person and number (perfect
+ = part of the verb "to be" which fits that person and number (future

example verb: múngérn (n verb) - to fight

  Present  Imperfect Perfect  Pluperfect Future
1st Sing. múngeri  amúngeri * múnger - amúnger + múngerné
1st Pl.  múngera amúngera * múnger - amúnger + múngerné
2nd Sing. múngeris amúngeris * múnger - amúnger + múngerné
2nd Pl.  múngerican amúngerican * múnger - amúnger + múngerné
3rd Sing. múngeram amúngeram * múnger - amúnger + múngerné
3rd Pl.  múngeraf amúngeraf * múnger - amúnger + múngerné

* = part of the verb "to have" which fits that person and number (present)
- = part of the verb "to have" which fits that person and number (perfect
+ = part of the verb "to have" which fits that person and number (future

Note: "n verbs" if they have a vowel before the n, auranyanan for example,
take the n and the vowel before it off to form the stem - thus, here, the
stem would be auranyan not auranyana.




eg. lámen - stream, small body of flowing water.

Primary Case:   Ergative   ( - in ) eg. lámenin
   Absolutive  ( - ) eg. lámen

Secondary Case: Dative  ( - as )  eg. lámenas
   Genetive ( - é ) eg. lámenné
   Ablative ( - yas )eg. lámennyas

  Ergative Absolutive
Singular - in  -
Plural  - ina  a

  Dative  Genetive Ablative
Singular - as  - é  - yas
Plural  - aca  - ae  yaca

lámenin  (ergative, singular)
lámen  (absolutive, singular)
lámenina (ergative, plural)
lámena  (absolutive, plural)
lámenas (dative, singular)
lámenné (genetive, singular)
lámenyas (ablative, singular)
lámenaca (dative, plural)
lámenae (genetive, plural)
lámenyaca (ablative, plural)



Adjectives agree with the noun they are describing for case and number, and
usually follow immediately after the noun.
However, when the meaning can still be preserved, for instance when there is
only one noun in that case in the clause, the adjective can preceed the noun
to increase the adjective's force. This is used mainly for the following:

i) When something is of an exceptionally high level - eg. an extremely
beautiful book

ii) When stressing the difference between two similar items eg.
   Person A: "I brought a green book"
   Person B: " I brought a red book"

Adjectives can also be recognised as there are a number of common endings:
 ch, s, ñ, aen, ún

Adjectival Endings

  Ergative Absolutive Dative  Genetive Ablative
Singular - is  -  - as  - és  - yas
Plural  - ica  - a  - acan  - éca  - yacan

example: mún - blue

múnis   (ergative, singular)
mún  (absolutive, singular)
múnas  (dative, singular)
múnnés  (genetive, singular)
múnyas  (ablative, singular)
múnisa  (ergative, plural)
múna  (absolutive, plural)
múnacan (dative, plural)
múnnéca (genetive, plural)
múnyacan (ablative, plural)

full example: lámen (noun), mún (adj.) = blue stream

lámenin múnis  (ergative, singular)
lámen mún  (absolutive, singular)
lámenas múnas  (dative, singular)
lámenné múnnés (genetive, singular)
lámenyas múnyas (ablative, singular)
lámenina múnica (ergative, plural)
lámena múna  (absolutive, plural)
lámenaca múnacan (dative, plural)
lámenae múnnéca (genetive, plural)
lámenyaca múnyacan (ablative, plural)


Equative:  illa (adjective)
Comparitive:  sí (adjective)
Superlative:  síp (adjective)



Adverbs preceed the verb they are describing. They are formed by taking an
adjective with the required meaning and then executing the following steps:

1. Add an adverbial prefix (see later on)
2. Add the suffix "ré"

example: ramaen - fast + gi = giramaen + ré = giramaenré - quickly

The adverbial prefix (in this case "gi") depends on what sort of adverb it
If it describes time/place it uses "ho"
If it describes how intensely or urgently  the verb was carried out, it uses
If it describes in which manner the verb was carried out, it uses "ka"


Equative:  rilla (adverb)
Comparative:  risí (adverb)
Superlative:  risíp (adverb)



Intransitive Word Order

SV - Subject . Verb .

Transitive Word Order

The word order varies slightly due to the fact it relates to animacy. If all
factors were removed it might be said to be SOV, however in actual fact this
arrangement only rarely occurs.
The key to the order is that it is not the most animated argument that comes
first, but the argument which is normally the most animanted ie. 1st/2nd
person pronouns come before a 3rd person pronoun or a proper noun.
However nominative pronouns do not appear in the sentence as they only exist
as verb suffixes so in many sentences you would end up purely with OV.
When a proper noun is the subject of the predictate however, and a pronoun
is the objest, the word order would become OSV because a pronoun is
generally of higher animation than a proper noun.
If the subject and object of a predicate are nouns, then the word order will
be SOV as they are both the same in terms of usual animation, so the
argument that is in this particular case more animated comes first.


lanté sannári - I win the/a book

 lanté - book (absolutive, singular)
 sannár - to win (1st person [ + i ], present)

í herúin múngeram - The/a lord fights me

 í - I (accusative - me)
 herú - lord (ergative [ + in ], singular)
 múngern - to fight (3rd person [ - n, + am ], present)

With Additional Cases

Dative:   An argument in the dative case follows the object
Ablative: An argument in the ablative case follows the object
Genetive: An argument in the genetive case preceeds the argument it applies

Subordinative Clauses

to be done soon :)



herúin lantéa sannáram - The/a lord wins the books.

 herú - lord (ergative [ + in ], singular)
 lanté - book (absolutive, plural [ + a ] )
 sannár - to win (3rd person [ + am ], present)

herúin lantéa cillam sanná - The lord won the books.

 herú - lord (ergative [ + in ], singular)
 lanté - book (absolutive, plural [ + a ] )
 acár - to be (auxilliary. 3rd person present [ cillam ] )
 sannár - to win (3rd person perfect [ - r ] )

halacé herúin anna agillir ammáram - The lord of the haven loves the
gold-coloured ring

 halas - haven (genetive [ + é], singular)
 herú - lord (ergative [ + in ], singular)
 anna - ring (absolutive, singular)
 agillar - gold-coloured (absolutive, singular)
 ammárn - to love (3rd person [ - n, + am ], present)

halacé herúin anna agillir késam ammár - The lord of the haven loved the
gold-coloured ring

 halas - haven (genetive [ + é], singular)
 herú - lord (ergative [ + in ], singular)
 anna - ring (absolutive, singular)
 agillar - gold-coloured (absolutive, singular)
 kúnvan - to have (auxilliary. 3rd person present [ késam ] )
 ammárn - to love (3rd person, perfect [ - n ]



acár - to be

  Present  Imperfect Perfect  Pluperfect Future
1st Sing. en  aen  fé  afé  ené
1st Pl.  eno  aeno  féno  aféno  enoé
2nd Sing. cill  acill  fécill  afécill  asillé
2nd Pl.  cillan  acillan  fécillan  afécillan cillané
3rd Sing. cillam  acillam  fécillam  afécillam cillamé
3rd Pl.  cillaf  acillaf  fécillaf  afécillaf  cillafé

kúnvan - to have

  Present  Imperfect Perfect  Pluperfect Future
1st Sing. kún  akún  takún  kúnta  ékúnta
1st Pl.  ke  ake  take  keta  éketa
2nd Sing. kis  akis  takis  kista  ékista
2nd Pl.  késan  akésan  takésan  késanta  ékésanta
3rd Sing. késam  akésam  takésam késamta ékésamta
3rd Pl.  kúnt  akúnt  takúnt  kúnta  ékúnta


abantár [v] -  to defend from attack or destruction (eg. a castle, or
acár [v] -  i) [irreg] to be
   ii) auxiallary verb for ár verbs in the perfect, pluperfect, and future
agillir [adj] -  gold-coloured
alan [pron] -  it (3rd person singular neuter nominative pronoun)
alau [pron] -  she (3rd person singular feminine nominative pronoun)
ammárn [v] -  to love
anna [n] -  i) ring (eg. a gold ring)
   ii) an organisation, commitee or council where the majority of the group
are equal in status.
annár [v] -  to rule, or reign over.. usually a kingdom or people
arárnór [n] -  fury
arárnórs [adj] -  furious (from arárnór)
aras [n] -  i) money, wealth
   ii) treasure
as [pron] -  we (1st person plural nominative pronoun)
auranyanan [v] - to create from nothing
basan [n]  stronghold or fortress.
élessan [n]  star
entirár [v] -  to guard (eg. a prisoner) from escaping
górch [adj] -  big or large (defining the propery of a physical item)
halas [n] -  i) port, harbour
   ii) safe-haven
herú [n] -  lord or master
hisil [n] -  i) father, genetic or adopted
   ii) a mentor, role-model
ilern [v] -  to attack or assail a country, province, castle, position etc.
(ie. not to physically attack a person    or thing)
is [pron] -  you (2nd person singular nominative pronoun)
kúnvan [v] -  i) [irreg] to have
   ii) auxilliary verb for n verbs in the perfect, pluperfect, and future
lámen [n] -  i) a stream or small body of flowing water.
   ii) poetic - a stream of blood, diamonds etc.
lanté [n] -   i) book, series of papers or similar attached to each other.
   ii) in plural form, an indefinite amount of works that share a common
sannár [v] -  i) to win (eg. a prize)
   ii) to gain someone else's emotiong (to gain their trust, their
friendship etc.)
mala [pron] -  he (3rd person singular masculine nominative pronoun)
malé [pron] -  they (3rd person plural nominative pronoun)
manaen [adj] -  i) dark
   ii) depressing
   (from mano)
mano [n] -  i) night
   ii) despair
   iii) a time when a community or organisation does not prosper.
mún [adj] -  blue
múngern [v] -  to fight
nárlis [n] -  sword
ni [pron] -  I (first person singular nominative pronoun)
nínach [adj] -  vengeful
kanínachré [adv] - vengefully (from nínach)
ramaen [adj] -  fast
giramaenré [adv] - quickly (from ramaen)
saunaen [adj] -  cunning
kasaunaenré [adv] - cunningly (from saunen)
tun [pron] -  you (2nd person plural nominative pronoun)


assail (v.)  ilern
attack (v.)  ilern
be (v.)   acár
big   górch
blue   mún
book   lanté
cunning   saunaen
cunningly  kasaunaenré
council   anna
create (v.)  auranyanan
dark   manaen
defend (v.)  abantár
despair   mano
depressing  manaen
fast   ramaen
father   hisil
fight (v.)  múngern
fortress   basan
furious   arárnórs
fury   arárnór
gain (v.)  sannár
gold-coloured  agillir
guard (v.)  entirár
have (v.)  kúnvan
haven   halas
he   mala
I   ni
it   alan
large   górch
lord   heru
love (v.)  ammárn
master   heru
mentor   hisil
money   aras
night   mano
port   halas
quickly   giramaenré
ring   anna
rule (v.)   annár
she   alau
star   élessan
stream   lámen
stronghold  basan
sword   nárlis
they   malé
treasure  aras
vengeful  nínach
vengefully  kanínachré
we   as
win (v.)   sannár
you (sing.)  is
you (pl.)  tun