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R: Re: Dievas dave dantis; Dievas duos duonos

From:Mangiat <mangiat@...>
Date:Monday, September 18, 2000, 13:08
Raymond wrote:

> At 11:06 pm +0100 16/9/00, Dan Jones wrote: > >Jonathan Chang wrote: > > > >> >> Nik sigged: > >> > > >> >>> > Dievas dave dantis; Dievas duos duonos > >> >> > God gave teeth; God will give bread - Lithuanian proverb > >> > > >> >> > >> >That lang seems so Latin-ish...! > >> >Indeed in Latin 'd sound like: > >> > > >> >Deus dedit dentes (arch. dentis); Deus dabit panem. > > In fact the change from /denti:s/ to /dente:s/ did not take place in the > written language until the 1st century AD. Writers like Livy & Vergil
> 'dentis', tho their texts are very often re-spelled for school kids. The > spelling 'dentes' is, strictly speaking, post-Classical.
Two years ago we've translated the 4th book of the Aeneis at school, and the 80% of the plural acc.s was in -is, indeed.
> The change does not, of course, reflect a sound change of /i:/ -> /e:/ > which would be somewhat unusual. It reflect a simplification of the > language which had probably happened earlier in speech. No neuter plural > ever distinguished between nominative & accusative; as for masc. & > feminines, the two cases were not distinguished in 4th & 5th declension
> a good half of the 3rd decl. had only -e:s for the two cases. This change > simply brought the 3rd decl. masc. & fems. with nom. plural in -e:s and > acc. plural -i:s into line with the others.
Is the origin of the 'dichotomy' nom. plur. in -es / acc. plur. in -is caused by the PIE -s/-ns endings?
> Indeed, it is clear that in spoken Latin of the Empire, the nom. & acc. > plurals of the 1st decl. had the single ending -a:s, though this was not > reflected in literary texts. Only the 2nd decl. masc. kept the two cases > distinct in the plural, cf. Modern Italian _amici_ /a'mitSi/ <-- amici > /a'mi:ki:/, but _amiche_ /a'mike/ <-- amicas /a'mi:ka:s/. Latin _amicae_ > would've given *amice.
Really? I've always thought 'amiche' with /k/ was modelled on the singular. Since rosa /rOza/ pluralizes in -e without changing the root consonant, even amica /a'mika/ deletes the ending -a to add -e without undergoing the change. Luca