A Writing on Speechken (was: An ungothroughsome riddle)
|From:||Matt McLauchlin <matt_mcl@...>|
|Date:||Thursday, March 8, 2001, 7:39|
Like togethertakes and speakings, words have an inward framework made up of
smaller ones laid out with kinship to each other in their own way. The most
weighty weft of word framework is the shapebit, the smallest bit of speech
that tells of meaning or working. The word builder, for showdeal, is made up
of two shapebits: build (with the meaning of "put together") and -er (which
tells that the whole word works as a name with the meaning 'one who
builds'). Similarly, the word houses is made up of the shapebits house (with
the meaning "dwelling") and -s (with the meaning "more than one").
Some words are made up of a single shapebit. For a showdeal, the word wheel
cannot be split into smaller bits (say, wh and eel or whe and el) that tell
of its meaning or work. Such words are said to be mere and are distinguished
from togetherknit words, which have two or more shapebits.
5. Ways of Jointing
The lips, tongue, soft roof, and Adam's apple can be put in manifold shapes
to make manifold ringing kinds. These manifold togethershapes are called the
ways of joining.
5.1 Mouthly against Nosely Ringings
A firstly split in way of joining is between mouthly and nosely ringings.
When the soft roof is lifted, cutting off the windstream through the
noseways, mouthly ringings are made. The soft roof, however, can be lowered
to let wind go through the noseways, in which stead they are most often
calling. (Unless otherwise said so, all noselies given out in this bookpart
are calling.) The withsounds at the end of the English words sun, some, and
sung are nosely. For many speakers of English, the callrunes of words such
as sank and wink are also nosely.
Stops are made with a whole and quick shutting of windstream through the
callmaking way. In the world's tongues, stops are found at twoliply,
toothly, ridgely, hardroofly, softroofly, throatberrily, and adamsapply
In English, twoliply, ridgely, and softroofly mouthly and nosely stops show
up in the following words. Note that [N] does not show up word-startingly in
The adamsapply stop is often heard in English in the tellway uh-uh, meaning
"no". The two callrunes in this uttering each come after a quick shuttting
of the windstream in the Adam's apple. In some British folktongues, the
adamsapply stop is often heard instead of the [t] in a word like cattle.
This adamsapply stop is often spelled with a stopmark (ca'l).
Shapebits do not always have an unshifting shape. The shapebit used to tell
of looseness in English, for showdeal, has two shapes: a and an.
The shape a is used before words beginning with a withsound and the shape an
before words beginning with a callrune. The manifold shapes of a shapebit
are called othershapes.
Another example of othershapely shifting is found in the utterway of the
morely shapebit -s in the following words: cats, dogs, fishes.
Whereas the morely is uttered as /s/ in the first deal, it is thingmade as
/z/ in the next, and /@z/ in the third. Here again, picking out of the meet
othershape hinges on ringkenly facts. We will look at thinner threads of
this happening in bookpart 6.
Beginning learners can be puzzled by the shifts in spelling that happen in
some shapewise layouts even when there is no likewise shift in utterway.
Thus, the last e in the word ride is lost when it comes together with a
shapebit beginning with a callrune (rid-ing). It goes without saying that
these spelling shifts do not do anything to the self of a shapebit, and
should simply be left aside when doing shapekenly upbreaking.
1.2 Showing Word Framework
So as to show the inward framework of words, one has not only to name each
of the shapebits that make them up but also to split up these threads by
what they give to the meaning and work of the bigger word.
Roots and Onjoinings
Togetherknit words most often are made up of a root and one or more
onjoinings. The root shapebit makes up the heart of the word and carries the
biggest chunk of its meaning. Roots most often belong to a wordbookly ilk -
name (N), saying (V), onthrown (A), or forestead (P). These ilks will be
talked about in thinner threads in bookpart 5, bit 1.1. For now it is enough
to see that names most often talk about true and make-believe "things" while
sayings most often mean doings, onthrowns most often name ways of being, and
foresteads show stead-kinships. Mostly, names can be with the (the cow),
sayings with will (will go), and onthrowns with mighty (mighty kind).
Unlike roots, onjoinings do not belong to a wordbookly ilk, and are always
bound shapebits. A straightforward showing of this split is found in the
word teacher, which is made up of the root "teach" and the onjoining "-er",
a bound shapebit that mingles with the root and gives a name with the
meaning "one who teaches". The inward framework of this word can be shown in
These drawings, which are often called tree frameworks, show the threads of
a word's inward layout. Where these threads are of no bearing to what is
being thought about, it is the folkway to use a much easier way of showing
that gives out only where the shapebit edges are: un-kind, like-ly, and so
(same wellspring as the earlier onsticking)
From time to time, wights are hurt in sundry steads in their brains. The
most oft maker of such brain wounds is a stroke (also called a
brain-bloodhose happening). A speech loss brought on by a wound in the brain
is called speechlessness. The kenning of speechlessness is by far the
mightiest tool in looking into speechfulness in the brain. By looking at and
writing down the kinds of speechless-togetherhappenings, brainspeechkenners
may most easily name off the biggest upmakers of speechfulness in the brain.
For the most part, the tally and ilk of speechless brawl that a wounded
wight will show hangs on how much the brain is wounded and where it is
wounded. There are many ilks of speechlessness....
Unstreaming speechlessness (also called going speechlessness) comes from
wounds to steads in the brain forward of the middle wrinkle. Bear in mind
that a big part of the forward lump deals with going and that the bottom
rear stead of the forward lump (Broca's stead) deals with the bending of
speech. Not startlingly, therefore, unstreaming wounded folk show slow, hard
speechmaking (hence the word unstreaming). The harshest kind of unstreaming
speechlessness is worldly speechlessness. In this type of speechlessness,
the wounded wight is wholly dumb. Of the less harsh shapes, Broca's
speechlessness is the most worthy of learning.
The speech of Broca's speechless ones is mighty stopping. Wounded folk find
it mighty hard in rightly making the ringbits needed to say a word. For
showdeal, a wounded who wishes to make the saying in 1a) would be likely to
make the uttering in 1b).
1a) It's hard to eat with a spoon.
1b) /... har.....it..wIt.....pun/
The outtaking dots (...) between the words in 1b) show times of stillness in
the making of the uttering. Sayings made at this slow speed are likely to
lack wonted saying pitchmaking. This is a wonted likeness of the speech of
Broca's speechless ones and is called wrongsagaing. Note how the wounded one
makes the withringing bunches easier in the words "hard" and "spoon" and
changes the /T/ to /t/ in the word "with". The speech mistakes that come out
of these kinds of ringbitly mistakes are called ringbitly halfspeakings.
-Tonguecrossings from _Today's Speech-Upbreaking_ (_Contemporary Linguistic
Analysis_), third uttering, by O'Grady and Dobrovolsky.