Tatari Faran comparatives
|From:||H. S. Teoh <hsteoh@...>|
|Date:||Tuesday, April 10, 2007, 2:51|
And now, for a Tatari Faran update. (These haven't been forthcoming for
a while, but the upcoming Inverse Relay---and my putting myself on the
line by offering TF as one of the participants---has finally prodded me
to work out more details of TF. So here they are, Tatari Faran
Tatari Faran, in accordance with its isolating tendencies, does not have
any inflected forms for comparatives. Instead, it uses the words _puru_
and _sutu_, meaning "more" and "less", respectively. This may sound
rather simple, but it does have some interesting interactions with TF's
1) _puru_ and _sutu_ may appear in adjectival position to indicate a
tiki puru sei tsuni baran kana upi ipai ira.
rabbit more CVY find morning now here at COMPL
There are more rabbits here this morning.
['ti'ki pu4u sej . 'tsuni ba4an kana ?u'pi ?ipaj ?i4a]
buneis sutu sei tsuni upi ipai ira.
mushroom less CVY find here at COMPL
There are less mushrooms here (than before).
[bu'nejs:utu sej . tsuni ?u'pi ?ipaj ?i4a]
(Note: the [.] in the IPA indicates a brief pause, characteristically
between the subject NP and the predicate.)
2) They may also modify adjectives to indicate more or less of the
san busan puru sa hena saba anan.
person fat more CVY then rise COMPL
Then a fatter person stood up.
[san bu'san pu4u sa hEna . 'saba ?anan]
san busan sutu sa bumei utu'.
person fat less CVY sit COMPL
The less fat person sat down.
[san bu'san sutu sa . 'bumej ?utu?]
No surprises so far. Now, what about explicit comparisons? So far, the
standard of comparison has been implicit. For explicit comparison, we
add an NP in originative or receptive case:
3) bunari tara' sei jui'in puru diru minei kakat.
woman that:DEM CVY beautiful more girl this:DEM:RCP COMPL
That woman is more beautiful than this girl.
[buna'4i ta4a? sej . jui'?in pu4u 'di4u minej kakat]
Notice that the receptive case is used for the standard of comparison
4) asuen sa meman sutu teira kei beiparan.
younger_brother CVY mature less older_brother ORG NEG:COMPL
The younger brother is less mature than the older brother.
[?a'sMn sa . 'mEman sutu "tej4a kej 'bejpa4an]
Here, "older brother" is in the *originative* case, and the complement
_paran_ is negated. In general, when the comparison is positive, the
standard of comparison is receptive, and when the comparison is
negative, the standard is originative and the complement gets negated.
Now, we come to an interesting particle, _ke_, which has no direct
translation in English. It is used when _puru_ or _sutu_ is used without
reference to a quality or quantity:
This particle contracts with the adverb _umai_ ("again", "turning back")
to form a progressive comparative marker _kumai_, indicating an
increasing or decreasing quality:
5) tara' sei pamra tsat puru kumai asu.
3sp CVY run fast more PROGR COMPL
She runs faster and faster.
['ta4a? sej . 'pam4a tsat pu4u kumaj ?asu]
6) tara' sa pamra tsat sutu kumai bei'asu.
3sp CVY run fast less PROGR NEG:COMPL
He runs slower and slower.
['ta4a? sa . 'pam4a tsat sutu kumaj ?asu]
Note, again, that when the comparison is negative, as in (6), the
complement is negated with the negation prefix _bei-_.
The pairs _puru kumai_ and _sutu kumai_ can act sortof like Tatari Faran
quantifiers, in that when an increasing or decreasing quantity is
referred to, they take the form <quantity>+<partitive noun>:
7) sutu kumai sanis so tsuni upi ipai ira.
less PROGR person:PART CVY find here at COMPL
Less and less people are here.
(Lit., less and less people are found here - TF idiom for
expressing a verb to-be that it doesn't have.)
['sutu kumaj sanis:O . tsuni u"pi ?ipaj ?i4a]
8) puru kumai sanis so pahaan kiki.
more PROGR person:PART CVY angry COMPL
More and more people are (becoming) angry.
['pu4u kumaj sanis:O . 'paha:n kiki]
More details can be found at the Tatari Faran website: