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Romanized Hangkerim

From:Carlos Thompson <cthompso@...>
Date:Tuesday, January 19, 1999, 22:43
In my postings on Hangkerim I've used an uppercase romanization... I
will first comment some particularities of how H. language is pronounced
and written by H. people, but first a little background.

After H. territory was partly invade by Spaniards (first) and Englishmen
(later), the more traditional romanization used Spanish conventions in
the orthography.

H. language has 12 different consonants, 4 vowels and 2 final nasal and
5 tones.  Syllabe structure is CV(N).  There are some short syllabes of
the type CV with relaxed short vowels.

Each consonant, vowel and nasal could have several sounds.  The official
H. script use a syllabary.  This syllabary would not mark the actual
sound of the syllabe.  Low tone are unmarked.  Rising and falling tones
are marked with something similar than our acute (') and grave (`) marks
over the syllabe.  High tone is mark with a bar and falling-rising tone
is marked with an inverted circumflex mark (^).  Tone marking is recent
and many H. people don't mark them in handwriting script.

The four vowels are: A, E, I and U, and are usually pronounced [A], [E],
[i] and [U] when isolated.
The twelve consonants are H, P, D, K, V, Z, C, M, N, R, L, Y and are
usually pronounced, in isolated words, like:
H:    /?/ at beginning of word, /h/ all other cases
P:    /b/ after -M, /p/ all other positions
D:    /t/ after -N, /d/ all other cases
K:    /k/ always
V:    /f/ at beginning of word, /v/ all other cases
Z:    /T/ always
C:    /C/ (voiceless palatal fricative) always
M:    /m/ always but /B/ after -M.
N:    /n/ always
R:    /rr/ (voiced postalveolar trill)
L:    /l/ always
Y:    /j/ always

The nasals are -M, and -N.  M is always /m/ with small assimilation to a
labiodental nasal before V.  N is /N/ slightly palatized before C.

Usually tones are marked with diacritics over the vowel: low unmarked,
acute for rising, grave for falling, bar for high and inverted caret for
falling-rising.  Short syllabes use a lowercase vowel.  Here I will use
_, /, \, ^ and ~ for marking tones after the syllabe.

This is the official romanization of the written language, or the way
for marking isolated words.

Words in a sentence would be pronounced differently.  For marking this
differences a romanization using lowercase letters has been derived.

When the sound is the same to the isolated word sound, there is used the
lowercase letter but {-N} will be written {ng}.

I will post later the table of sounds and orthography.

There is a second romanization used by many Christian Hangkerimians, and
I will also post later the orthography, as well as how the H. script was
prior the reform.


PS.  After the latest discussions and voting in the Parliament or
Yelamha, Yelamha former king will still be the Chief of State up to the
posetion of the new President.  Elections will take place in middle
March (before the midyear celebration), and the new president will be in
power at the begining of april.  It has not been define yet how much
political power will have the new president.  Today's Chief of Goverment
is the Prime Minister, elected by the Parliament when the King
resigned.  It seams that the mayority wants that the President will be
Chief of Goverment too, but there are many MP that has not decide yet.

Kurimpe King is not worried and has promised that his nephew will be
king.  The pro-republic movement in Kurimpe believes that before the end
of the next year, there will be a president in Kurimpe.  Some people has
suggested, partly joking, that if the King resigns now in favor of his
nephew (or if the more radical por-republican movements kill him) both
promises could be acomplished.  Actually, Kurimpe's pro-republical
movement is not as strong as Yelamha's and Lengdemi (King of Kurimpe) is
still very popular.

In the Republic of Daluram, President Babungviku is observing how
Yelamha process is going.  There are many people in both Yelamha and
Daluram who are pushing for the reunification of the Hangkerim nation.
Time will show how things are happening.


--
Carlos Eugenio Thompson Pinzsn
  ITEC-Telecom, Colombia

  cthompso@alpha.telecom-co.net
  http://alpha.telecom-co.net/~cthompso/