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RV: First original text

From:FFlores <fflores@...>
Date:Friday, December 24, 1999, 12:21
Oops! A couple of mistakes and notes...

> > Amu ly kalpa amu teegasi sa. > river be_of.SUB lord river accumulate.GEN cannot > 'The lord of the river cannot keep the river.'
_Sa_ 'cannot' is a merging of _t-is-a_; the root is <t-> 'can, be able', <-is-> is the negation infix, and <-a> is for direct marking. As with all auxiliary verbs, the main verb goes first and in the 'genitive' form.
> Ai lury ho ai palasi ho saaka.
That should be: Ai lury ho ai paly ho taaka. land be_of.INV.SUB person land have.SUB man can.not_be 'The one of the land cannot be the one that has the land.' Here _taaka_ is the root <t->, conjugated (_ta_), and then added the negation verb _ka_ (which produces reduplication of the previous vowel). The underlying structure is *t-a-sk-a, can-DIR-not_be-DIR; Wamen can't have /s/ closing a syllable so there's compensatory vowel lengthening (as a duplication). DIR is direct marking, which means just that the verb form is finite and that the first argument and topic is the subject. The verb-suffix here translated as 'not be' is actually better rendered as 'not be the case'; so _ai paly ho taaka_ is more like "(he) can (be) the man who has the land that's not the case", "it's not the case that he can (be)..." etc. As you see, there's zero copula. Many of the auxiliary verbs like <t-> can also be thought as including a copula. --Pablo Flores