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Re: Color morphemes

From:Pavel Adamek <pavel.adamek@...>
Date:Thursday, September 5, 2002, 15:03
> Pale red is one shade of pink, but there is another kind (sometimes called > "hot pink") which is basically a bright magenta-like color. Pale magenta > could also be called "pink" if you're not too picky; or "lavender" if you > want to be more specific.
> Pink, if I'm not mistaken, includes also magenta and > lavander, which are not pale nor light kinds of red > but variants of a different spectral color.
Let us see what can be found in dictionaries: ------ _magenta_ brilliant crimson aniline dye discovered soon after the battle (1859) at Magenta in N. Italy. XIX _crimson_ Arab. (Pers.) k.irmizi:, from k.irmiz _kermes_ _kermes_ female of the insect Kermes ilicis, formely supposed to be a berry; red dye-stuff obtained therefrom; (k. oak) evergreen oak on which it lives XVI; (k. mineral) red sulphide of antimony XVIII. - F. kerme`s - Arab. (Pers.) k.irmiz _carmine_ crimson pigment obtained from cochineal. XVIII. - (O)F. _carmin_ or medL. _carminium, perh. conflation of _carmesi:num_ (see _crimson_) and _minium_ cinnabar. _pink_ species of Dianthus; fig. finest 'flower', embodied excelence. XVI; adj. pale red colour XVIII; perh. short for _pink-eyed_ _pink-eyed_ (dial.) having narrow or half-closed eyes. XVI - early Du. _pinck_ small _lavender_ fragrant labiate plant. XV. - AN. lavendre, for *lavendle - medL. lavendula, also livendula, lavindula, etc.; of uncert. orig. fr. lavande, sp. lavanda, it. lavanda ------ So it seems that - _crimson_ is hue "more red than red"; - _magenta_ orig. has meaning "crimson", but our technical terminology shifted the meaning to "antigreen" (like "purple" - see below); - _carmine_ is essentially synonyme and cognate with "crimson"; - _lavender_ is pale magenta.
>> Note that CGA's BROWN (2/3 1/3 0) is entirely saturated; >> and also Windows' Maroon (1/2 0 0), which I consider as sort of brown.
> By definition, saturated colours are the pure, > spectral ones, which do not include brown. > Thus, brown simply *can't* be saturated; it's > a "mixed" colour.
Saturated colors are not only the primary colors (R G B) which have only one componet nonzero, but they are all colors which have at least one component zero. As I already wrote, they are
>> at the circumference of the hue&saturation triangle,
while the pale colors are inside of the triangle and gray is in its centre. Not all saturated colors are spectral, only the ones at the upper two sides of the triangle (B - Prussian - C - T - G - apple - Y - O - R), while the colors at the bottom side ( - V - M - crimson - ) are not spectral. Of course, this is slightly simplified description dealing only with the colors which can be displayed. Actually, fully saturated violet and crimson would be spectral, but they are outside of the triangle of displayable colors. Note also that the technical terminology is somewhat inconsistent, because uses UltraViolet and InfraRed, while for sake of symetry should be either UltraViolet and InfraCrimson or UltraBlue and InfraRed.
> - carmine red > - VERMILLION RED > - orange > - YELLOW > - apple green > - EMERALD GREEN > - sea-green > - CYAN > - Prussian blue > - INDIGO > - purple > - MAGENTA
I recomend - crimson instead of carmine - turquoise instead of sea-green - violet instead of purple. _purple_ was orig. crimson or other red colour, later colour obtained by mixing red and blue. - L. _purpura_, Gr. _porphura_ "shellfish that yielded the Tyrian purple dye". I think that the Hungarian _piros_ "red" could be also cognate and that these words are maybe derived from "fire". "Red" is translated into Czech as _c`erveny'_, which is derived from _c`erv_ "worm" and therefore cognate with "vermillion". (arch. "vermeil", from L. _vermiculus_ "little worm", used in Vulg. Ex. 35:25 for _coccuni_ "scarlet".) But there is also the Czech word _rudy'_, which is translated into English as "crimson". _scarlet_ +rich cloth, of various colours, freq. bright-red XIII; bright vivid red colour XV; - OF. escarlate, F. ecarlate; of unkn. orig.
> Then, to divide the achromatic scale in 5 degrees: > - WHITE > - light grey > - MEDIUM GREY > - dark grey > - BLACK > By just combining those 12+5 basic morphemes you > you can refer to most colours
Pale colors only. You should add the morpheme "bright", to distinguish the hue (for ex. MAGENTA) regardless of wheter the color is dark or pale (so including Purple and lavender) from the non-dark and non-pale color (Fuchsia).
> - cinnamon: light-grey orange yellow
Gr. kinnamo:mon; of. Sem. orig. (cf. Heb. k.inna:mo:n). I wonder if that has some connection with _cinnabar_ "vermilion - Gr. kinna:bari.
> - lilac: light-grey purple
_lilac_ shrub Syringa vulgaris. XVII. - F. +lilac (now lilas) - Sp. lilac - Arab. li:lak - Pers. li:lak, var of _ni:lak_ bluish, from _ni:l_ blue, indigo. So maybe lilac = pale violet? Maybe 3 hue&saturation morphemes would suffice: hue only - pale color - bright color - dark color crimson - - - RED - pink - scarlet - Maroon orange - tan - - brown YELLOW - - - Olive apple - - - olive GREEN - - Lime - turquoise - - - CYAN - - Aqua - Teal Prussian - - - BLUE - - indigo - Navy violet - - - MAGENTA - lavender - Fuchsia - Purple But I still prefer the system with 6 h&s morphemes, with 1 saturation for dark colors ("dark"), 2 saturations for medium colors ("deep" and "dim") and 3 saturations for light colors ("bright", "light" and "pale"). P. A.


Muke Tever <mktvr@...>