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Kirshenbaum vs. SAMPA

From:Herman Miller <hmiller@...>
Date:Sunday, November 22, 1998, 4:17
Since IPA still isn't usable in email, we must use an ASCII equivalent.
Neither of the two most widely used systems for transcribing IPA into =
(Kirshenbaum's system and SAMPA) are entirely adequate for this purpose. =
use Kirshenbaum for some languages and SAMPA for others, but it would be
nice to have a single system that all languages intended to be spoken by
humans can use.

Suggestion for an augmented/mixed Kirshenbaum/SAMPA system:

I suggest adopting all characters that have the same representation in
Kirshenbaum's system and SAMPA without change. Other suggestions:

Avoid these characters: [ ] { / }
[^x] for all superscript characters ([^j], [^w], etc.), [^r] for =
[*X] for small capitals ([*B], [*L], etc.)
[x-] for barred letters ([h-], [o-], [u-], etc.)
[x\] as in SAMPA
[x+] extra letters not easily created by other means ([r+] alveolar tap,
[R+] uvular trill, [u+] unrounded u, etc.)
[xy)] for ligatures ([ae)], [oe)], [OE)], [tS)], etc.) and double
articulation ([kp)], etc.)
[x(] dental
[x!y] for clicks (e.g., [t!k], [p!N])
[=3Dx] for tones ([=3D1], [=3D2], [=3D/], [=3D\], etc.)
[_x] (except tones) as in SAMPA, for diacritics
['] and [,] for primary and secondary stress.
[%] to turn a character over ([A%] turned script a, [m%] turned m, etc.)
[o\] for slashed o
[U] corresponds to Kirshenbaum [u"].

Kirshenbaum characters without SAMPA equivalents:

[`] for all implosives and ejectives ([b`], [t`], etc.)
[F] voiceless bilabial fricative
[J] voiced palatal stop

SAMPA characters without Kirshenbaum equivalents:

[@\] reversed e
[6] turned a
[B\] bilabial trill
[H\] small capital H
[K] voiceless alveolar lateral fricative
[K\] voiced alveolar lateral fricative
[M\] velar approximant
[P] labiodental approximant (script v)
[h\] hooktop h
[j\] curly-tail j
[s\] curly-tail c
[x\] hooktop heng
[z\] curly-tail z

Major conflicts:

[&] is ae ligature in Kirshenbaum, small capital OE ligature in SAMPA. I
prefer the Kirshenbaum version.

[F] is voiceless bilabial fricative in Kirshenbaum, labiodental nasal in
SAMPA. I suggest [M] for labiodental nasal, leaving [F] available to
represent voiceless bilabial fricative.

[G] is voiced uvular stop in Kirshenbaum, voiced velar fricative in SAMPA
(corresponding to [Q] in Kirshenbaum). [Q] is a vowel in SAMPA. I suggest
swapping Kirshenbaum [G] and [Q].

[H] is voiceless pharyngeal fricative in Kirshenbaum (=3D SAMPA [X\]), =
labial-palatal approximant in SAMPA. I suggest [Y] for the voiced
labial-palatal approximant, leaving [H] for the voiceless pharyngeal
fricative, or adopting the SAMPA equivalents for both sounds.

[J] is voiced palatal stop in Kirshenbaum, palatal nasal in SAMPA. I
suggest [n~] for palatal nasal, freeing [J] to represent voiced palatal

[L] is palatal lateral approximant in SAMPA, velar lateral approximant in
Kirshenbaum (=3DSAMPA [L\]). I suggest adopting the SAMPA characters for =

[R] is rhoticized mid central vowel in Kirshenbaum, uvular fricative in
SAMPA. I prefer the SAMPA version.

[W] is small capital OE ligature in Kirshenbaum, voiceless w in SAMPA. I
prefer the SAMPA version.

[Y] is slashed o in Kirshenbaum, small capital Y in SAMPA. I would like =
use [Y] to represent a voiced labial-palatal approximant.

[r] is alveolar trill in SAMPA, alveolar approximant in Kirshenbaum. I
suggest the trill, corresponding to IPA usage.

Retroflex sounds use [.] in Kirshenbaum, [`] in SAMPA. I prefer