Theiling Online    Sitemap    Conlang Mailing List HQ   

Re: Phonological terminology question

From:Garth Wallace <gwalla@...>
Date:Tuesday, February 18, 2003, 1:18
Danny Wier wrote:
> From: "Garth Wallace" <gwalla@...> > >>Looking at the IPA/X-SAMPA chart, I see sections for "pulmonic" and >>"non-pulmonic" consonants. What does that mean? > > Lemme try... pulmonic consonants (and vowels) involve movement of air to and > from the lungs. The vast majority of sounds in the world's languages are > pulmonic egressive, that is uttered while breathing outward. Pulmonic > ingression is involved in a "gasp", but I know of no natural languages with > pulmonic ingression.
Hmm...that'd be an idea. A language with both egressive and ingressive vowels, so speakers would never have to stop for breath.
> After pulmonic, glottalic consonants are next in order of frequency. The > most common is glottalic egressive, the consonants known as "ejective", > found in languages as diverse as Amharic, Georgian, Navajo, Quechua and > <shameless conlang plug>Tech</shameless conlang plug>. These involve > pressure caused by a closure and raising of the glottis in the lower throat > region, then a release of pressure at first the oral articulation (labial, > dental, velar etc.) then the glottis. But glottal ingressive, or "implosive" > consonants can be found, mostly in African languages like Hausa, Somali and > Swahili, as well as other languages like Sindhi and Khmer. The glottis is > lowered, creating a suction in the upper throat and mouth. Voiced implosives > are more common than voiceless.
So, would a bilabial ejective be a spitting sound, and a bilabial ingressive be a kiss?
> The clicks of Khoisan languages in southern Africa are classified as "velar > ingressive", meaning that there is closure at the soft or rear palate as > well as another stop at the dental, alveolar, palatal/retroflex and lateral > position (but there are also bilabial clicks and I don't know how these are > produced). The front of the tongue is released just before the back, > creating a vacuum then a "click" sound. These are also the sounds of > "giddy-up" and "tsk-tsk".
Ahh, I see.
> Finally, there are buccal egressives (air released from the cheeks, the > speech of Donald Duck) and gastric egressive (BURP!!).
Heh heh. That last one is a bit hard to control, but not impossible...a friend back in grade school could belch complete sentences. I'm also a little unclear on how epiglottal and pharyngeal consonants are a pharyngeal fricative a choking sound? Because that's what I get when I try it.


Danny Wier <dawier@...>
Muke Tever <mktvr@...>