Re: THEORY: Case stacking; was: Re: THEORY: genitive vs. construct case/izafe
|From:||Patrick Littell <puchitao@...>|
|Date:||Wednesday, July 27, 2005, 2:58|
On 7/26/05, tomhchappell <tomhchappell@...> wrote:
> Hello, everyone, and thanks for writing.
> TERMINOLOGY QUESTION: Is "Suffixaufnahme" the same as "case-
I am unaware of "case-stacking" as a widely-used item of terminology, but as
it's used here, it appears to refer to constructions in which a noun may
receive more than one case morpheme -- a group of phenomena which includes
the various Aufnahme-phenomena. (That is, Suffixaufnahme, the even rarer
Präfixaufnahme, Tone-Aufnahme, etc. For convenience, sometime *all* of these
are referred to as Suffixaufnahme.) But there are other case-stacking
phenomena than Suffixaufnahme.
The definitive work on the subject (Double Case, Planck ed., 1995) gives a
prototype definition of Suffixaufnahme roughly as follows:
"In what can be recognized as the prototype of Suffixaufnahme there is a
nominal consisting of a noun or a personal pronoun in a relationship of
attribution to another nominal, in the basic form that attributive
constructions take in the language concerned, with the head nominal
morphologically marked by a case suffix for its external syntactic relation,
with the attribute carrying the inflectional marking of genitive case, and
-- crucially -- with the attribute itself in addition separately marked for
the same case, plus perhaps further categories expressed by suffixes, as the
head." (p. 50)
That is, possessions take both the genitive case suffix and the case suffix
of their possessors. (This also, in many languages, works with other cases,
such as the dative or the locative. The prototype specifies genitive because
it's the most common.) Here's an example from Hurrian:
"my brother's wife"
"my brother's wife"
As for recursive attribution -- phrases like "the dowry of the wife of my
brother" -- different languages behave differently. Hurrian appears only to
accept one Suffixaufnahme construction per recursive genitive phrase, and
it's the deepest one. Schematically:
brother-GEN-GEN wife-GEN dowry-DIR
This is a bit odd -- perhaps I shouldn't have chosen Hurrian but it's the
one I know the best -- but the canonical Suffixaufnahme construction would
brother-GEN-GEN-DIR wife GEN-DIR dowry-DIR.
When I say "canonical" I really mean "most consistent" -- I don't believe
that the "canonical" recursive construction is used in the majority of
Sumerian, on the other hand, exhibits a different sort of case-stacking,
"Suffixhäufung". This occurs when suffixes are "postponed" until the end of
the entire phrase -- that is, when the case suffix occurs after the phrase
rather than the head. This resembles Suffixaufnahme but is really a
completely different pattern. Here's a Sumerian example:
é dnin Girsu-k-ak-e
house lord Girsu-GEN-GEN-DEM
"this house of the lord of Girsu."
In my analysis, this is perhaps best understood as clitic case postpositions
(morphological but not phonological words, which must attach to a nearby
word to be pronounced) attaching to the final word of their phrase. When
combined with head-initial genitive phrase structures, as above, we get the
Sumerian pattern of Suffixhäufung.
There are other construction that might qualify as case-stacking, as well.
For example, in Jiwarli (a Mantharta language of Australia, distantly
related to Warlpiri), the ablative case can only be added to a
locative-case-marked noun. More strangely, all demonstratives must be marked
dative before any other suffix (case or otherwise) may be added to them.
Of course, if we stretch the definition of Suffixaufnahme to include
non-case suffixes (which seems reasonable), then some sorts of
Suffixaufnahme would not be case stacking. Take Elamite, which shows
aufnahme of definiteness suffixes:
puhu-ri sijan Inshushinak-mi-ra
issue-DEF=ANIM temple Inshushinak-DEF=INANIM-DEF=ANIM
(The DEF=INANIM suffix -mi can be omitted from the noun (temple) itself;
maybe this then appears to prevent further suffix accumulation on this noun.
Perhaps; I don't know much about Elamite.)
Anyway, hope this clears things up, and inspires some interesting ideas,
PHIL205: MWF 2:00-3:00, M 6:00-9:00
Voice Mail: ext 744
Spring 05 Office Hours: M 3:00-6:00