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Vocab exercise, year 2, #1 [Trentish]

From:Muke Tever <mktvr@...>
Date:Sunday, October 20, 2002, 0:06
From: "Aidan Grey" <grey@...>
> The goal here is to get through Longman's dictionary of 2197+ words, > which should be a good base for anyone.
@whee! .. Eeek! Er, from here on out <'> by itself is a glottal stop and after a consonant marks an ejective. I'm too lazy to go back and write /_>/ everywhere.
> Theme: topicalization (make the vocab word the topic or focus of the > utterance). > > 1. crowd
<'lume-> "many together"
> There was a huge crowd in front of the building.
'lumeupa k'o'etla kwanwola potlikwixë. "There were a great many people in front of the building" ?lu-me-u=pA k'o?etKA kwA-NwolA po-tKi-kw-ixV PL-AGG-people=TOP great:many before-building PERF-XER-be-1/3 The <me-> aggregate implies, not exactly crowdedness, but a group of things together, as opposed to many things separately, which would use <el->. So I dont think a word for "crowd" particularly would be necessary. Or, perhaps the English word would be borrowed. It'd come out /khleUt/. So you could say: Nguñathakhleùmpa kwanwola potlikwixë. Nu-JAthA-khleUt=pa very-big-"crowd"=TOP (Yes, that's /t-p/ > [mp].)
> 2. lead > She led her dog into the field.
<sop'one> "to lead" Shatwopa luusje po'uusop'onixV. "The dog was led towards the field by her." SAtwo-pA lut-sje po-?u:-sop'on-ixV dog-TOP towards-field PERF-PASS-lead-1/3 Actually, it might be better to do it this way: Shatwopa luusje po'uucwuxë ty. "She made the dog go towards the field." SAtwo-pA lut-sje po-?uu-cw-uxV ty dog=TOP towards-field PERF-PASS-go-3B/3A CAUS
> Her dog was on a lead.
Liishpa shatwëxinòm poùùshanixë. li:S-pA SAtw-V-xin=Om po-Uk-SAn-ixV "leash"=TOP dog-POSS-3SG=NOM PERF-MID-have-1/3
> The pipes are made of lead.
<'wola> "Pb" 'wolapa 'lumephaipòm poùùxilixë. ?wolA=pA ?lu-me-phAip=Om po-Uk-xil-ixV lead=TOP PL-AGG-pipe=NOM PERF-MID-make:of-1/3
> 3. ready > He's ready to go now.
<ùk'ëlo> "to prepare" Poùkùk'ëlikë, icwexini olo. "He has prepared, that he may go now" po-Uk-Uk'Vl-ixV i-cwe-xini olo PERF-MID-prepare-1/3 FIC-go-3 now
> 4. slow > Snails are slow.
<thini> "slow" 'lelt'shasëlëlpa 'othinkwixë. ?l-el-t'SAsVlVl=pA ?o-thin-kw-ixV PL-SEP-snail=TOP POS-slow-be-1/3
> He runs slowly, and I bet he won't win the race.
E'othinipa tlilixë, ëlenge twolak'ashewinixë it'uwu. e-?o-thini-pA tKi-l-ixV INST-POS-slow=TOP XERG-run-1/3 VleNe two-lA-k'ASe-win-ixV i-t'uwu therefore PROB-run-event-"win"-1/3 NEG-think
> 5. rent > I have to pay rent on the 5th of every month.
Er, isn't rent normally a verb? :p (<not'ëë> in Trentish) Ñësjëinotënot'ëëpa ële twaë thapwunwunwa tlithökhiliñ lonò. JVsj-V-notV-not'VV=pA Vle twAV thapwu-NwuNwA price-POSS-NMLZR-rent=TOP month each five-day tKi-th2-khil-iJ lonO XERG-ITER-pay-1/1 must
> 6. popularity > This was just a popularity contest.
<'oñje> "fame" 'oñjeshüshüpa kòm potlikwixë. ?oJje-Sy-Sy-pA k-Om po-tKi-kw-ixV fame-NMLZR-test=TOP this:INF-NOM PERF-XER-be-1/3 (<kë> is a demonstrative that already has a sort of "I don't think too much of this" built in, as opposed to the more neutral <öt'>.)
> 7. -ion > two parts here: first, how are verbal nouns formed? > act > action, move > motion, see > vision.
Reduplication. <kwë> "be, do" <kwëkwë> "being, doing" <cwë> "move, come, go" <cwëcwë> "motion, moving" <ñony> "see" <ñonyñony> "sight, vision, seeing"
> second, the sentence: > His action was hasty.
Kwëkwëxinipa mosa'lulakwixë. kwV-kw-V-xini=pA mosA-?lulA-kw-ixV NMLZR-do-POSS-3SG=TOP too-fast-be-1/3
> 8. addition > Even the addition of an extra student increased class sizes beyond > tolerable limits.
*brain explodes* Këëphli'lishiuk'ëëngoñixë!! Xishe t'otle ko'etla khlaspa i'uuk'ëëngoñixë! ("They just go and add another student!! Just one is too much to add to the class!") kV?-phli-?liSi-u-k'VVNoJ-ixV DEROG-LIB-study-person-add-1/3 xiSe t'otKe ko?etKA khlas-pa i-?uu-k'VVNoJ-ixV one only too:much "class"=TOP FICT-PASS-increase-1/3
> 9. hat > Today is a say-something hat day!
Önnwunwa khu?lelshashaxatë. 2t'-NwuNwA khu-?l-el-SA-SA-xAtV this-day=TOP for-PL-SEP-NMLZR-say-"hat"
> 10. pack > I need to pack for my trip.
'lumeshejëñypa khukhepwëñy ?uùk'ëlixë lonò. "I need my things for my trip prepared." ?lu-me-Sej-V-Jy-pA khu-khepw-V-Jy ?uu-Uk'Vl-ixV lonO PL-AGG-thing-POSS-1SG=TOP for-trip-POSS-1SG PASS-prepare-1/3 must
> The pack she wore on the trip was way too heavy.
Thathaepa khukhepwu po'uuthakixë, pomosanemokhekwixë. thAthAe=pA khu-khepwu po-?uu-thAk-ixV pack=TOP for-trip PERF-PASS-wear-1/3 po-mosA-nemokhe-kw-ixV PERF-too-heavy-be-1/3 ...well, that was mildly painful. :-) *Muke! --