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"Roumant", or whatever it may be called. Part V

From:Christophe Grandsire <christophe.grandsire@...>
Date:Monday, November 13, 2000, 14:59
Well, two weeks ago I promised I would tell about verbs in "Roumant", so here it

The verbal system of "Roumant" is not original in itself, the categories
existing are quite the same as other Western Romance languages. Yet it has its
originalities. The first thing is that verbs are classified into 5 groups of
conjugations (not three like in other Romance languages) sharing common
features, like the ending of the infinitive, but not only that. The 1st group
contains the verbs whose infinitives end in -âre (e.g. cantâre /ka~'tar/: to
sing). They are usually very regular. The 2nd group contains the verbs in -êre
(e.g. comêre /ko'mEr/: to eat). They are also quite regular. The 3rd group, and
smallest one, contains the verbs in -îre whose radical never carries the stress.
They are characterized by an extension in -iss in some tenses and by their
regularity (e.g. finîre /fi'nir/: to end). The 4th group contains all the other
verbs ending in -îre. They are usually irregular but form patterns (like the
verbs venîre /v@'nir/: to come and tenîre /t@'nir/: to have, to hold, which
belong to the pattern of the verbs ending in -enîre. Those verbs share the same
irregularities). Finally, the 5th group contains the remainding verbs, that's to
- the auxiliaries stêre /stEr/: to be and avôre /a'vor/: to have,
- the verbs in -ôre (like pôre /por/: to be able to),
- the verbs whose infinitive is marked by doubling the last consonnant of the
radical + e (like volle /vOl/: to want),
- the remainding isolated irregular verbs (like îre /ir/: to go, dâre /dar/: to
give, fêre /fEr/: to do, dîre /dir/: to say, etc...).
In the following explanations about tenses, only endings of regular verbs (of
the first three groups) will be shown. At the end of the post, a few examples of
conjugations will show you what it looks like for irregular verbs.

The simple tenses:
There are nine simple tenses, corresponding to 4 personal moods:
- the indicative present,
- the indicative imperfect,
- the indicative simple past,
- the indicative future,
- the subjunctive present,
- the subjunctive imperfect,
- the subjunctive future,
- the conditional present,
- the imperative present.
Note the existence of a subjunctive future.

The indicative present:
It's formed from the radical (infinitive without the ending) to which are added
different endings for the different persons, and different from each group (the
order is obviously: 1sg, 2sg, 3sg, 1pl, 2pl, 3pl):
- 1st group verbs: -e, -as, -at, -ams, -és, -am
- 2nd group verbs: -e, -es, -et, -ems, -és, -em
- 3rd group verbs: -ie, -ies, -iet, -issims, -issés, -issim

The indicative imperfect:
It's also formed from the radical to which special endings are added:
- 1st group: -àv, -àvs, -àvt, -âvams, -âvés, -âvam
- 2nd group: -èv, -èvs, -èvt, -êvams, -êvés, -êvam
- 3rd group: -issìv, -issìvs, -issìvt, -issîvams, -issîvés, issîvam

The indicative simple past:
It's also formed from the radical, to which special endings are added:
- 1st group: -ai, -ass, -ó, -âme, -âte, -âre
- 2nd group: -ì, -ess, -é, -ême, -ête, -êre
- 3rd group: -ì, -iss, -é, -îme, -îte, -îre
It's the tense most full of irregularities.

The indicative future:
It's formed from the infinitive (from which the circonflex accent and the final
-e are dropped) to which are added the endings of the auxiliary avôre in the
indicative present:
- -è, -às, -à, -oms, -és, -om
This formation is common to most Western Romance langs. Note that the verbs like
volle drop their -e and add an -r before the endings, so that the future radical
is for volle: vollr-. This tense is the most regular of all.

The subjunctive present:
It is formed from the radical to which the following endings are added:
- 1st and 2nd group: -e,-es, -et, -ioms, -iés, -iom
- 3rd group: -isse, -isses, -isset, -issioms, -issiés, -issiom
Note that the 1st and 2nd group don't have different endings for this tense.

The subjunctive imperfect:
It is formed using the 2nd person sg. of the indicative simple past (the form
ending in -ss) as a radical, to which are added the endings of the subjunctive
present for the 1st and 2nd group. Note that it makes subjunctive present and
imperfect identical for verbs of the 3rd group, except for the 1pl and 2pl where
the stress position is different.

The subjunctive future:
It is formed from the same base as the indicative future, to which are added the
endings of the verb avôre in subjunctive present (in fact the same endings as
the 1st and 2nd groups).

The conditional present:
It is formed from the same base as the indicative future, to which are added the
endings of the verb avôre in the indicative imperfect:
- -èv, -èvs, -èvt, -êvams, -êvés, -êvam

The imperative present:
It exists only for the second person (singular and plural), the other persons
being filled with subjunctive present forms. It is formed by adding the
following endings to the radical:
- 1st group: -, -e, -, -, -âte, -
- 2nd group: -, -e, -, -, -ête, -
- 3rd group: -, -ie, -, -, -issîte, -

The impersonal forms:
There are four impersonal forms (one one which is already explained): the
infinitive, the present participle, the past participle and the gerund.

The present participle:
For regular verbs, it is formed from the radical to which is added:
- 1st group: -ant
- 2nd group: -ent
- 3rd group: -issint
It can be used as an adjective, which thus agrees in gender and number with the
noun it completes.

The past participle:
It's formed from the radical to which is added:
- 1st group: -àt
- 2nd group: -èt
- 3rd group: -ìt
It also can be used as an adjective, and also agrees in gender and number with
the noun it completes.

The gerund:
It's an adverbial form, which is simply formed like an adverb from the present
- 1st group: -ammente
- 2nd group: -emmente
- 3rd group: -issinté (the form -issimmente is usually not used)

The compound tenses:
To each simple tense, there is a corresponding compound tense, formed for every
verb by conjugating the auxiliary avôre in the corresponding simple tense,
followed by the (invariable) past participle of the verb. Those different
compound tenses are:
- the indicative perfect,
- the indicative pluperfect,
- the indicative past perfect,
- the indicative future perfect,
- the subjunctive perfect,
- the subjunctive pluperfect,
- the subjunctive future perfect,
- the conditional perfect,
- the imperative perfect.
It is also possible to form an infinitive perfect (avôre + past participle), a
perfect participle (eiyent + past participle) and a perfect gerund (eiyemmente +
past participle), but those forms are hardly ever used.

The passive voice:
Like in French and other modern Romance tongues, the passive voice, when it
exists (that's to say, only with transitive verbs) is formed by adding the past
participle (which then behaves like a predicate adjective and thus agrees in
gender and number with the subject) to the auxiliary stêre: to be conjugated in
the chosen tense.

Some conjugation tables:
Here are some conjugation tables (normally only the simple tenses are
represented) to show you the stress position (which depends on the person, tense
and group of the verb form) and the actual pronunciation of the endings in

Regular verbs of the 1st group: example: cantâre /ka~'tar/: to sing
present:                            imperfect:
(iou) cante /ka~t/                  cantàv /ka~'ta/
(tu) cantas /'ka~ta/                cantàvs /ka~'ta/
(ile) cantat /'ka~ta/               cantàvt /ka~'ta/
(nos) cantams /ka~'ta~/             cantâvams /ka~'tava~/
(vos) cantés /ka~'te/               cantâvés /ka~'tave/
(iles) cantam /'ka~ta~/             cantâvam /ka~'tava~/

simple past:                        future:
(iou) cantai /ka~'tE/               cantarè /ka~ta'rE/
(tu) cantass /ka~'tas/              cantaràs /ka~ta'ra/
(ile) cantó /ka~'to/                cantarà /ka~ta'ra/
(nos) cantâme /ka~'tam/             cantaroms /ka~ta'rO~/
(vos) cantâte /ka~'tat/             cantarés /ka~ta're/
(iles) cantâre /ka~'tar/            cantarom /ka~ta'rO~/

present:                            imperfect:
(iou) cante /ka~t/                  cantasse /ka~'tas/
(tu) cantes /ka~t/                  cantasses /ka~'tas/
(ile) cantet /ka~t/                 cantasset /ka~'tas/
(nos) cantioms /ka~'tjO~/           cantâssioms /ka~'tasjO~/
(vos) cantiés /ka~'tje/             cantâssiés /ka~'tasje/
(iles) cantiom /'ka~tjO~/           cantassiom /ka~'tasjO~/

(iou) cantare /ka~'tar/
(tu) cantares /ka~'tar/
(ile) cantaret /ka~'tar/
(nos) cantarioms /ka~ta'rjO~/
(vos) cantariés /ka~ta'rje/
(iles) cantariom /ka~'tarjO~/

conditional:                        imperative:
present:                            present:
(iou) cantarèv /ka~ta'rE/           cante /ka~t/
(tu) cantarèvs /ka~ta'rE/           cante /ka~t/
(ile) cantarèvt /ka~ta'rE/          cantet /ka~t/
(nos) cantarêvams /ka~ta'rEva~/     cantioms /ka~'tjO~/
(vos) cantarêvés /ka~ta'rEve/       cantâte /ka~'tat/
(iles) cantarêvam /ka~ta'rEva~/     cantiom /'ka~tjO~/

infinitive: cantâre /ka~'tar/
present participle: cantant /ka~'ta~/
past participle: cantàt /ka~'ta/
gerund: cantammente /ka~ta~'ma~t/

Regular verbs of the 2nd group: example: comêre /ko'mEr/: to eat
present:                            imperfect:
(iou) come /kom/                    comèv /ko'mE/
(tu) comes /kom/                    comèvs /ko'mE/
(ile) comet /kom/                   comèvt /ko'mE/
(nos) comems /ko'ma~/               comêvams /ko'mEva~/
(vos) comés /ko'me/                 comêvés /ko'mEve/
(iles) comem /'koma~/               comêvam /ko'mEva~/

simple past:                        future:
(iou) comì /ko'mi/                  comerè /kom@'rE/
(tu) comess /ko'mEs/                comeràs /kom@'ra/
(ile) comé /ko'me/                  comerà /kom@'ra/
(nos) comême /ko'mEm/               comeroms /kom@'rO~/
(vos) comête /ko'mEt/               comerés /kom@'re/
(iles) comêre /ko'mEr/              comerom /kom@'rO~/

present:                            imperfect:
(iou) come /kom/                    comesse /ko'mEs/
(tu) comes /kom/                    comesses /ko'mEs/
(ile) comet /kom/                   comesset /ko'mEs/
(nos) comioms /ko'mjO~/             comêssioms /ko'mEsjO~/
(vos) comiés /ko'mje/               comêssiés /ko'mEsje/
(iles) comiom /'komjO~/             comessiom /ko'mEsjO~/

(iou) comere /'kom@r/
(tu) comeres /'kom@r/
(ile) comeret /'kom@r/
(nos) comerioms /kom@'rjO~/
(vos) comeriés /kom@'rje/
(iles) comeriom /'kom@rjO~/

conditional:                        imperative:
present:                            present:
(iou) comerèv /kom@'rE/             come /kom/
(tu) comerèvs /kom@'rE/             come /kom/
(ile) comerèvt /kom@'rE/            comet /kom/
(nos) comerêvams /kom@'rEva~/       comioms /ko'mjO~/
(vos) comerêvés /kom@'rEve/         comête /ko'mEt/
(iles) comerêvam /kom@'rEva~/       comiom /'komjO~/

infinitive: comêre /ko'mEr/
present participle: coment /ko'ma~/
past participle: comèt /ko'mE/
gerund: comemmente /koma~'ma~t/

Regular verbs of the 3rd group: example: finîre /fi'nir/: to end
present:                            imperfect:
(iou) finie /fi'ni/                 finissìv /fini'si/
(tu) finies /fi'ni/                 finissìvs /fini'si/
(ile) finiet /fi'ni/                finissìvt /fini'si/
(nos) finissims /fini'sE~/          finissîvams /fini'siva~/
(vos) finissés /fini'se/            finissîvés /fini'sive/
(iles) finissim /fi'nisE~/          finissîvam /fini'siva~/

simple past:                        future:
(iou) finì /fi'ni/                  finirè /fini'rE/
(tu) finiss /fi'nis/                finiràs /fini'ra/
(ile) finé /fi'ne/                  finirà /fini'ra/
(nos) finîme /fi'nim/               finiroms /fini'rO~/
(vos) finîte /fi'nit/               finirés /fini're/
(iles) finîre /fi'nir/              finirom /fini'rO~/

present:                            imperfect:
(iou) finisse /fi'nis/              finisse /fi'nis/
(tu) finisses /fi'nis/              finisses /fi'nis/
(ile) finisset /fi'nis/             finisset /fi'nis/
(nos) finissioms /fini'sjO~/        finîssioms /fi'nisjO~/
(vos) finissiés /fini'sje/          finîssiés /fi'nisje/
(iles) finissiom /fi'nisjO~/        finissiom /fi'nisjO~/

(iou) finire /fi'nir/
(tu) finires /fi'nir/
(ile) finiret /fi'nir/
(nos) finirioms /fini'rjO~/
(vos) finiriés /fini'rje/
(iles) finiriom /fi'nirjO~/

conditional:                        imperative:
present:                            present:
(iou) finirèv /fini'rE/             finisse /fi'nis/
(tu) finirèvs /fini'rE/             finie /fi'ni/
(ile) finirèvt /fini'rE/            finisset /fi'nis/
(nos) finirêvams /fini'rEva~/       finissioms /fini'sjO~/
(vos) finirêvés /fini'rEve/         finissîte /fini'sit/
(iles) finirêvam /fini'rEva~/       finissiom /fi'nisjO~/

infinitive: finîre /fi'nir/
present participle: finissint /fini'sE~/
past participle: finìt /fi'ni/
gerund: finissinté /finisE~'te/

Verbs of the 4th group: verbs in -enîre: e.g.: venîre /v@'nir/: to come
present:                            imperfect:
(iou) viem /vjE~/                   venìv /v@'ni/
(tu) viems /vjE~/                   venìvs /v@'ni/
(ile) vient /vjE~/                  venìvt /v@'ni/
(nos) venims /v@'nE~/               venîvams /v@'niva~/
(vos) venés /v@'ne/                 venîvés /v@'nive/
(iles) viênim /'vjEnE~/             venîvam /v@'niva~/

simple past:                        future:
(iou) vim /vE~/                     vendrè /vE~d'rE/
(tu) vimss /vE~s/                   vendràs /vE~d'ra/
(ile) vim /vE~/                     vendrà /vE~d'ra/
(nos) vimme /vE~m/                  vendroms /vE~d'rO~/
(vos) vinte /vE~t/                  vendrés /vE~d're/
(iles) vinre /vE~r/                 vendrom /vE~d'rO~/

present:                            imperfect:
(iou) viêne /vjEn/                  vimsse /vE~s/
(tu) viênes /vjEn/                  vimsses /vE~s/
(ile) viênet /vjEn/                 vimsset /vE~s/
(nos) venioms /v@'njO~/             vimssioms /'vE~sjO~/
(vos) veniés /v@'nje/               vimssiés /'vE~sje/
(iles) viêniom /'vjEnjO~/           vimssiom /'vE~sjO~/

(iou) vendre /vE~dr/
(tu) vendres /vE~dr/
(ile) vendret /vE~dr/
(nos) vendrioms /vE~'drjO~/
(vos) vendriés /vE~'drje/
(iles) vendriom /'vE~drjO~/

conditional:                        imperative:
present:                            present:
(iou) vendrèv /vE~d'rE/             viêne /vjEn/
(tu) vendrèvs /vE~d'rE/             viem /vjE~/
(ile) vendrèvt /vE~d'rE/            viênet /vjEn/
(nos) vendrêvams /vE~d'rEva~/       venioms /v@'njO~/
(vos) vendrêvés /vE~d'rEve/         venîte /v@'nit/
(iles) vendrêvam /vE~d'rEva~/       viêniom /'vjEnjO~/

infinitive: venîre /v@'nir/
present participle: venint /v@'nE~/
past participle: venìt /v@'ni/
gerund: venimmente /v@nE~'ma~t/

Well, I've just realized that four conjugation tables may already be too many
for some people, so I'll stop here for this post. But If there are people
whanting to see more conjugations, there is still a lot to see. Among the verbs
of the 4th group, there are still patterns like the verbs in -entîre, in -uîre,
the verbs not featuring the augment -i(ss) (for lack of a better name), the
verbs called "with weakening" (those are verbs like mourîre: to die that undergo
a change in their radical vowel, here ou /u/ -> eu /2/ in some parts of their
conjugation. Among them are nearly all the verbs whose radical vowel is e /@/
(-> i /i/) except the verbs in -enîre) and the verbs called "with loss of final"
(for "loss of final consonnant of the radical", in some parts of their
conjugation). And of course, there are the verbs of the 5th group, like the
auxiliaries avôre: to have and stêre: to be, the verbs like volle: to want, the
verbs in -ôre (like pôre: to be able to), and the isolated irregular verbs like
îre: to go, dâre: to give, fêre: to do, to make, or dîre: to say. I think I will
anyway make a special post for îre, avôre and stêre, because they are very
particular even among irregular verbs (especially îre whose complete conjugation
comes in fact from the collapsing of four different verbs!).

Right now I'm waiting for your comments on this part. If you want, I will post
more verbal paradigms, or I will go to other parts, like the prepositions, the
negation (a very interesting feature in "Roumant") and the numerals. Or I can do
both if you want :) .