Look and thou shalt see
|From:||H. S. Teoh <hsteoh@...>|
|Date:||Wednesday, September 20, 2000, 17:52|
Here's the daily dose of my conlang... Today, we shall exhibit the
phenomenon of Sentence Adjoinment with the help of two verbs, fa't3 (to
see or to be seen) and zota' (to look, to look at).
pii'z3d0 zotuw' l0 jolu'r biz3t30' faw't3.
(Kirsh) /pi:zV"dO zotu?u" lO jolu*. bizV"tV"?O Ba?u"tV"/
the man looks.at (adjoin) the house the woman is.seen [by him]
(org) (verb) (aux-org) (rcp) (org) (verb)
"The man looks into the house and sees the woman in the house."
zotuw' deliberative perfective of "zota'", to look at, to look in the
faw't3 consequential perfective of "fa't3", to see or to be seen,
implying that the seeing results from the previous action of
This is a compound sentence, formed by adjoining the following sentences:
1) pii'z3d0 zotuw' jolu'r.
/pi:zV"dO zotu?u" jolu*./
the man looks house
(org) (verb) (rcp)
"The man looks at (into) the house."
2) jul0'r biz3t30' faw't3.
/julO*. bizV"tV"?O Ba?u"tV"/
House woman appears.
(org) (org) (verb)
"The woman is seen in the house". Literally, "Out of the house,
the woman is seen".
The relative "l0" in the adjoined sentence is an auxilliary inflection
relative (particle) in the originative case, which supplies a secondary
case to the word "jolu'r". "jolu'r" is a noun in the receptive case; the
compound "l0 jolu'r" behaves like a noun unit which is receptive in the
*preceding* sentence, and originative in the *subsequent* sentence (i.e.,
Therefore, the first part of the compound sentence,
pii'z3d0 zotuw' l0 jolu'r ...
is identical in meaning to (1), and the second part of the sentence, and
the second part of the sentence,
... l0 jolu'r biz3t30' faw't3.
is identical in meaning to (2).
So, literally, the compound sentence can be read: "The man looks at the
house out of which the woman is seen". Note that the English translation
uses a subordinate clause for the second sentence ("out of which the woman
is seen"), however, in the native language, both sentences are *equally
important*, or at the same syntactic "level". It's as if the speaker has
run the two sentences together into one, end-to-end. There are also
subordinate clauses in the language; but using a subordinate clause for
the second sentence would imply that it's a secondary, unimportant idea,
rather than a foreground event.
Don't worry, I'll post another tidbit on subordinate clauses sometime...