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Re: Patient marking in active languages

From:Jim Henry <jimhenry1973@...>
Date:Sunday, February 19, 2006, 19:01
On 2/17/06, Nokta Kanto <red5_2@...> wrote:

> What does an active language do for verbs that (arguably) > take two patients: own, be inside, overlook, ride, wear? Do they assign > the "agent" role to one of the arguments, or use some other noun case, or > not express such relationships as a verb clause?
gzb has agent and patient case markers, but also several others, including experiencer and "topic" (which maps to the actual topic in many sentences, and sometimes means "on, about, on the subject of" (when marking the object of a verb like "talk" or "write", for instance), or acts as a generic subject case when none of the others is quite appropriate. to own: owner marked with topic case, owned thing marked with generic relative case, own-verb in the stative form. twax-cu renx dxiq-i wunx-van pq miq-i. sentence-system many relationship-at own-V.STATE 3SG TOP-at She owns many books. To be inside: location-verb is stative, thing inside which marked with spatial postposition, thing which is inside marked with topic case postposition. kyl inx tyn-van raxm miq-i box inside place-V.STATE cat TOP-at The cat is inside the box to overlook: expressed as "to not see", marked like "see" with the overlooking person marked as experiencer and the thing overlooked marked with the attentive case postposition. raxm kax-i riqm-van henx tq jqaxr-i. cat ATT-at see-V.STATE not 2SG experiencer-at You didn't see the cat. to ride: if a horse or bicycle, as Carsten remarked, the verb is active and the rider is agent. If riding a train, plane, car etc as passenger, the passenger is marked as patient and the agent (the actual driver, pilot, etc) may be omitted if unknown. to wear: expressed just like "to be inside". For more details, see: -- Jim Henry