Phaleran Case Update (2): Dative
|From:||Thomas R. Wier <artabanos@...>|
|Date:||Monday, August 6, 2001, 6:33|
(continued from previous post)
In the last post I discussed Phaleran ergativity. Here's a
Syaseillu eoi gethasyonni
PL.child.ERG 3pSgO see.TR.3pPL-ProxPfRe.Sen
'The children looked at him'
(PL: plural; 3p: third person; Sg: singular; O: objective case;
TR: transitive marker; PL-Prox: plural agreement marker for
proximative subjects; Pf: perfective aspect; Re: realis mode;
Sen: sensory evidential marker)
Dative (-uo / -wo)
The Phaleran dative case does a lot of heavy lifting: it marks
roles like the Recipient, Goal, Location, with noncontrol verbs,
the Perceiver, and Possession with inanimate and nonvolitional
possessors. Here're some samples (this is what I've been looking
Atherlu dzarituo sunesna hnerrateonten
father.ERG son.DAT bill.PL.ABS give.DITR.3pSgPfRe.Quot
'So I hear, (the) father gave (his) son some money.'
There are two types of this: temporal and spatial.
'Are we going to go at noon?'
Twolyeowo phrâstyumendru klortasyonnen
Twolyeo.DAT council-of-20.ERG order.TR.3pPL-ProxPfRe.Quot
tî balyei kwiltr|anâs tharilsta
that pogrom.ABS dissent.AG.PL.BEN be.INTR.3pSgProgIr
'In Twolyeo, the Council of Twenty ordered a pogrom of dissidents.'
(Here the subordinate clause is treated like a objective noun, hence
the remaining ergative and transitivity markers. Also, one ancillary
use of the benefactive is the negative benefactive, here the poor
This is a rather important function of the dative case, because it is *the*
distinguishing factor for many verbal pairs where one case (ergative)
renders a control-interpretation, while the other (the dative) renders
a noncontrol-interpretation. Let's look at the ergative sample again,
but as a noncontrol verb:
Syaseiwo eoi gethasyonni
PL.child.DAT 3pSgO see.TR.3pPL-ProxPfRe.Sen
'The children saw him'
Note that though the subject is in the dative case, the verb still
treats it as if it were ergative. In a sense, you could rephrase it
as 'For the children, they saw him'. Another example of this in
English would be hear/listen.
Because Phaleran is a fairly thoroughly head-marking language, unlike
English, the possessive construction marks the thing that is possessed,
and places the possessor in apposition to it in the absolutive case. For
the dative case to be triggered, the "possessor" must be either inanimate
T'ulwa tuthuranuo tþenarisnon
palace.ABS PL.janissary.DAT rise-up.INTR.3pPL-ProxProgRe.Hyp.Quot
'They say that they palace's janissaries are rising in revolt.'
In the antipassive, the dative also marks proper or common nouns as
derived objects, but unfortunately I haven't gotten to verbal voice yet,
so I don't have an example to show you. In the third post: the instrumental
Thomas Wier | AIM: trwier
"Aspidi men Saiôn tis agalletai, hên para thamnôi
entos amômêton kallipon ouk ethelôn;
autos d' exephugon thanatou telos: aspis ekeinê
erretô; exautês ktêsomai ou kakiô" - Arkhilokhos